POLICING IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West,
© 1996 College of Police and Security Studies, Slovenia


As scientific study of police and policing has matured over the years, it has broadened its scope in order to address fundamental issues of policing in various contexts and environments. Unfortunately, due to known political reasons in the past, the flow of information, research findings, and experience between the East and the West has been quite limited. While the majority of what can be read on policing in academic journals and textbooks is based on research done in the West, a considerable amount of knowledge on policing has been accumulated among researchers from the East, as well. As police work and cooperation are getting internationalized rapidly, the need for police scholars to cooperate and share with their colleagues from different countries is also more and more evident.

To foster mutual understanding, exchange of views, concepts, and research findings among scientists, researchers, and practitioners from the East and the West, this publication presents a broad coverage of the many topics and disciplines by scholars and practitioners from around the world. Papers in this publication highlight new ideas, theories, methods, and results in a wide range of research and application areas related to police and policing.

The first part of the publication deals with the "Core Issues and Challenges." First, Milan Pagon explores the role and importance of what he calls 'the four pillars of policing:' cooperation, training, education, and research. He believes that countries in Central and Eastern Europe should establish themselves as equal partners in shaping the future of European and international policing. This is followed by a paper by Rainer Schulte who examines future requirements for police managers. Schulte believes that a general move toward a service- providing society is reflecting in a changing role of police, creating new demands upon training of police managers. Bill McDonald and Sergei Paromchik discuss the role of researching police by outside researchers as an instrument of public scrutiny, leading to an increasing police transparency and accountability. In their view, such studies are still a rather novel concept in Central and Eastern Europe. Richard Terrill explores the same issue of police transparency and accountability from a different angle, discussing the impact and modes of citizens oversight of police. He believes that the prospects for countries in Central and Eastern Europe to develop citizen oversight schemes appear unlikely at the moment, considering the infant stage of democracy in many of these countries. Gerald Lynch shares the experience of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in enhancing police professionalism and specialized training for law enforcement on an international level. He describes the creation and implementation of a program called "Human Dignity and the Police." Finally, Uglješa Zvekić presents preliminary results of the International Crime (Victim) Survey. Using these data, the author discusses attitudes towards police in countries in transition.

The second part is titled "Cooperation and Exchange of Knowledge in Policing." In this part, Tony Balzer examines international police cooperation in terms of opportunities and obstacles. He is optimistic in a sense that several irreversible developments will advance the international police cooperation despite all obstacles. Gert Vermeulen explores the issues of pre-judicial structuring of international police action in Europe. Structuring such police cooperation, in his view, would represent a crucial step toward an integrated and effective criminal law enforcement system, which at the same time offers the necessary legal guarantees. Anton Dvoršek discusses desires, possibilities, and some problems regarding the transfer of Western police experience from the Slovenian viewpoint. He points out that such transfer is still lacking in the area of both general and human resource police management. Gustáv Dianiška and Ivan Šimovček describe the efforts in the Slovak Republic to establish a new scientific discipline - Police Security Science, emanating from social sciences, common security and special security aspects. The new discipline aims at elevating the generalizations of practical police and security experience to the scientific and methodological level. Valeri Mikhailovich Morozov and Vladimir Anatolyevich Sergevnin discuss the utilization of international experience in police recruiting, selection, and training in the Russian Federation. They call for more cooperation, including the establishing of European forensic laboratories, specialist training centers, language study centers, publishing a European journal of police training, and developing professional standards of policing. Ulrich Koch examines the issues of police cooperation in Europe in terms of intercultural human resource management. He believes that we could capitalize on differences instead of seeing them as an obstacle, and proposes joint international training and bilateral task forces. Milica Gačić explains the idea of "Europolice language" and advocates the defining and implementing a common core of linguistic needs for police and related public services. Finally, Tanja Kovše presents the achievements of the Library of the Slovenian Ministry of the interior and argues for the establishment of an international regional information network system for the flow of gray literature in the area of police and related sciences in Central and Eastern European countries.

The third part deals with issues of "Policing and the Community." Ron Stansfield re- visions the concept of community policing. He argues that not only are public police not the dominant police form at present, but the community policing services they provide do not satisfy the safety needs of large parts of the community. Bertus Ferreira examines the use and effectiveness of community policing in a democracy. He discusses some common problems and disagreements regarding the effectiveness of this concept. In his opinion, Central and Eastern European countries could use community policing to re-establish their integrity. Prateep Philip introduces the "Friends of Police " movement and classifies it as a movement in community policing with an international relevance. He supports his claims with the results of a survey in the state of Tamil Nadu. David Butzer, Lois Martin Bronfman, and Brian Stipak present a case study on the role of police in combating domestic violence in the United States - the Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, Portland Police Bureau. They show how acting on the values of community policing can result in the integration of fresh perspectives and new approaches into police work. In his second contribution to this part, Prateep Philip describes the "Factor X," an innovative concept to heighten security consciousness and sensitize police personnel. He explains the notion that the security personnel, involved in VIP protection, should not rely on their notion of threat; rather, the risk has to be forecasted , predicted on a rational and scientific basis. Finally, James Houston and Dragan Stefanović shed a new light on corrections, as they examine development of a prison system for a democratic society. They point out that the emerging democracies of Central and Eastern Europe are currently experiencing a growth in crime that their correctional systems are ill-prepared to handle. They suggest ways of improving the correctional organizations management by decentralizing the decision-making process and improving upward communication.

The fourth part is titled "Policing and Change." James Hart examines the management of change in police organizations. Based on a review of current issues in change management and the author's research, the paper suggests a specification for a set of principles for change management in police organizations. Arianit Koci deals with the questions of legitimation and culturalism in the light of policing changes in the European 'post-socialist' countries. He believes that policing reforms in Central and Eastern Europe are potentially at a clear advantage, benefiting from the positive experience of policing in the democratically developed countries and simultaneously avoiding the mistakes made by their Western counterparts. Vinko Gorenak describes the organizational changes in the Slovenian Police in the period after 1990. He further describes a foreseen conclusion of the reorganization process of the Police in Slovenia. Belinda Cooper explores the consequence of the fall of the Berlin wall on the former East German Police, including two case studies. She believes that the fall of the wall caught much of Germany unprepared, and the subsequent development showed that forty years of divergent experience and behavior cannot simply be molded to suit political purposes. Istvan Szikinger discusses continuity and change in Hungarian policing in the mirror of public security detention. Alvydas Pumputis presents the background of the human rights protection in Lithuania. As the Lithuanian Police are adopting philosophy of policing for people, they are looking forward to a serious reform which should change the relations between the police and an individual. Finally, Miran Mitar examines the assessment of societal security in recent past and today. He is advocating the use of the Bailey's social entropy theory as a starting point for assessment.

The fifths part, "Policing and Crime," has two subparts. The first one is "Combating Crime." Peter Monge and his colleagues examine cooperative interagency approaches to the illegal drug problem. They describe the two formative phases of the multiagency alliance (negotiation and commitment), potential barriers, and critical factors for the successful formation of alliances. Andrew Haynes evaluates the effectiveness of three different approaches to combating money laundering. He advocates an approach, combining the United States and Australian approach. Janez Pečar explores the domain of the corporate wrongdoing policing. He describes the corporate crime policing as a new challenge, leading to a question of what form of policing is most appropriate in this area and what needs to be done in order to achieve it. Toon van der Heijden addresses the question of measuring organized crime in Europe. He describes the problems of establishing a common assessment mechanism within the EU members states and implies that such a mechanism, once established, could be applied in Central and Eastern European countries, as well. He calls for wider cooperation in the area of studying common trends in organized crime in Europe. Finally, Bojan Dobovšek discusses a similar problem, namely whether we could unify the definition of organized crime. The approach that he suggests is to compare the organized crime characteristics in different countries to develop the basis for future definition of organized crime. The second subpart is titled "Approaches to Crime Investigation." Darko Maver presents results of empirical research on defense strategies and techniques of interrogation. Karyl McBride describes a joint approach to child sexual abuse investigations, combining the expertise of mental health and law enforcement professionals. She reports that a training manual on child sexual abuse investigations was developed and tested, using ten law enforcement officers, who highly rated the training manual. George Dergay and Gennady Fiodorov are making a case for using odorology in law enforcement agencies. Zvonimir Dujmović and Ljiljana Mikšaj-Todorović report the results of their research on the criminological characteristics of offenders guilty of robbery, identifying two particular types of perpetrators of robbery in the Republic of Croatia. Egidijus Kurapka describes problems and perspectives of complex crime investigation in Lithuania. To address an increasing crime problem in Lithuania, the Police Academy of Lithuania started a research project "Criminality and Criminal Justice." The author reports the first results of the project. Polona Selič describes the beginning of special psychological profiling in Slovenia. She discusses the applicability and the process of profiling. Finally, Tatjana Kolar-Gregorić and Ana-Marija Horjan report their findings regarding the application of self-adhesive wall-paper in lifting fingerprints. They show that this paper is not only an appropriate substitution for the commercially available imported lifting tapes, but it also has a number of advantages over them.

The sixth part, "Policing and Psychology," also has two subparts. The first one is "Organizational Psychology and Policing." Jennifer Brown and Cary Cooper report the results of a survey of occupational stress amongst senior police officers. They found that senior police mangers describe job pressures that are similar to those experienced in other areas of work such as medicine and teaching. Managerial pressures do impact those who are required to implement and manage change. Based on the lessons from the West, the authors offer several steps important in tackling stress among police managers. Daniel Ganster, Milan Pagon, and Michelle Duffy report findings of their research on organizational and interpersonal sources of stress in the Slovenian Police Force. The general pattern of results indicates that leader behavior can serve to increase the personal control and social support that police officers experience at work. Control and social support, in turn, are significant predictors of mental and physical health outcomes. Thus, it appears that police organizations might be able to improve the well being of their members by teaching police supervisors to adopt more effective leadership behaviors. Finally, Dragica Kozarić-Kovačić and Tajana Ljubin report results of a validation study of the entrance examination for the study of police criminalistics. The results provided some preliminary evidence for the validity of the selection procedure. The second subpart is titled "Attitudes, Values, and Perceptions in Policing." Peter Umek, Kristjan Musek, and Gorazd Meško examine values and professional ideals of Slovene detectives. Their results show that detectives' values are similar to values in general population in Slovenia, while their personality structure differs a bit from the general population trends. Pavel Krejčí, Jaroslav Kvapil, and Jiří Semrád report the results of their research on the relation between job satisfaction, job frustration and narcissism, and the attitudes toward professional ethical behavior among police officers. The authors state that we should not underestimate the significance of sufficient satisfaction of fundamental needs for the forming of right ethical attitudes toward police work. Also, it is necessary to pay more attention to personal traits such as narcissism in selecting new police officers. Rob Mawby comparatively examines police practices in England, Germany, Poland, and Hungary. He focuses on victim's feelings about crime and their assessment of the police. J. H. Prinsloo explores institutional attitudes towards policing in contemporary South Africa. It was established that police in South Africa still favors an authoritarian law enforcement, which poses problems regarding future expectations of and commitment to community policing. Dennis Tipping reports the results of his research on the effect of suspicion on personality ratings. The results indicate that suspicion alone affects personality ratings based purely on facial appearance and no other clues, but that the experience or the age of police subjects did contribute to any bias presented. In their second contribution, Gorazd Meško, Peter Umek, and Kristjan Musek report the results of their research on students attitudes toward the police in Slovenia. Various differences were found between the students of the College of Police and security Studies and other students. Finally, Trpe Stojanovski and Zorica Sinadinovska-Zdraveska report the results of a research project on opinion of police about their own organization. The results show that police officers have a positive attitude toward the police and its role as a security institution in the society.

The seventh part is titled "Police Education and Training." Here, Milan Pagon and his colleagues present results of a survey on systems of police education and training in Europe. The results indicate that European countries have very different systems of police education and training. A case is made for standardization in this area. The authors recommend establishing three European centers for "training the trainers" and three graduate schools of criminal justice. Joe Frost is making the case for international police cooperation on training issues. He describes the Police Staff College in Bramshill and its role in international police training. Bojana Virjent-Novak discusses the impact of knowledge of foreign languages in police dealing with foreigners in Slovenia. She concludes that if Slovenia is to prosper as a tourist country, it needs capable, polite, and educated police, fluent in several foreign languages. Darryl Jones promotes the idea of establishing the national law enforcement integrity institute whose philosophy is to anticipate the future, embrace risk, create learning opportunities, and tap the power of citizen and community participation. Miran Mitar examines determination of educational aims of the College of Police and Security Studies in Slovenia between 1989 and 1995 and uses his findings to look in the future and describe various possible ways of the College's development. Atis Meibergs describes the new approach to police training in Latvia in the light of political changes after 1991. Melita Djurić and Gorazd Meško discuss how to modernize police training in Slovenia, using results of their research. They conclude that as long as the need for change of the present system of training is not recognized by the top management, no changes for better can be expected in such a hierarchical organization as the police. Finally, Willem Bosman and David Frost describe policing and distance education in South Africa as a process in transformation. On an educational level, the biggest challenge lies in addressing the imbalance in skills and experience. While proposing distance education as a solution, the authors argue for a new approach to distance education - an integrated learner centered model.

The eighth part, "Special Topics in Policing," has two subparts. The first one deals with "Women in Police." Jennifer Brown examines the issue of integrating women into policing from a comparative European perspective. She believes that as policing in Eastern Europe develops equal opportunity policies, women may change their tolerance threshold in terms of being restricted in job opportunities and men are likely to increase their resistance to the even diffusion of women throughout the organization. In Browns opinion, lessons from the West seem to predict the sequence: resistance, discrimination, harassment and then reform. Awareness of these processes may shorten the time necessary for this cycle to take place. Barbara Price discusses the issue of female police officers in the United States. She reports results of her research, showing that women of both races face a considerable amount of discrimination in policing. Milan Pagon and Branko Lobnikar explore the reasons for joining and beliefs about police among Slovenian female police rookies. Their results show that the female trainees' beliefs about police are the results of their experience during training and the resulting cynicism, the level of support and encouragement from their important others, as well as femininity and self-esteem. Finally, Anita Hazenberg talks about 'breaking the silence' and argues for a proportional representation of men and women in policing. In her view, a gender balance is a necessity for a high-quality police organization. The responsibility to achieve such a goal, she claims, is not on women's shoulders. It is up to the mostly male managers to form such a policy and achieve 'quality through equality.' The second subpart deals with "Traffic Aspects of Policing." In this part, Ljubo Zajc discusses the role of traffic law enforcement in the Slovene road safety system. The traffic safety situation and existence of different entropy reasons in the national safety system put a special importance on traffic policing. The author believes that the police should establish balance between police enforcement and preventive actions. Ian Crosby examines the effectiveness of vehicle seizure in reducing rearrest among 'problem' drunk drivers. The results show that, other things being equal, having a vehicle seized reliably predicts a doubled expected time to rearest. Regardless of the explanation, the author believes that any plausible strategy for avoiding rearrest also serves to make an offender less of a danger on the roads. Finally, Mladen Gledec discusses the use of traffic conflict techniques in the process of educating traffic police. He defines a traffic conflict as such a traffic situation involving two or more participants in the traffic approaching each other in space and time, and in such a way that they create a risk of causing a real collision, if they do not change their direction or speed. The author developed a videotape that can be used for educational purposes.

The contributions in this publication vary in terms of their scientific rigor, scope, and focus; however, the variety of the issues covered, the number of new ideas, different angles, and perspectives, make this publication an essential reading for academics, politicians, students, and practitioners, concerned with policing in Central and Eastern Europe and broader.

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