POLICING IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West,
© 1996 College of Police and Security Studies, Slovenia


George B. Dergay, Gennadiy V. Fiodorov

The improvement of methods of crime investigation is one of the most important tasks of the scienece of criminalistics. It's necessary do deep study of crime as a social phenomena and to elaborate new methods of struggle against ot. Identification is one of the most effective methods of solving this problem. The identity of object means it's inimitabless, individuality, difference!1

It's great significance in criminalistics. We can determine a person who was at a crime scene, find a car escaped from a crime scene, identify a gun with the help of traces on a bullet or cartdrige-case and so on.

E.F. Vidoque, French criminalist, used identification in his activity for the first time. It was in 1810. He accumulated much information about appearance of criminals and criminal methods in archives. He disclosed many murders, thief's, robbers and swinderls but expansion of information reduce the effectiveness of archives. Such situation brought to necessity of searching of new methods of identification.

A. Bertilion used anthropometric method of identification in 1879. Measuring of 14 parameters of prisoner's body and putting down to card-index was the essence of this method. E. Hershel, H. Folds and E. Henry developed the idea od dactyloscopic method of identification and found out mode of classification of fingerprints.2

It didn't stopped the development of methods of identification and soon rules of identificational photography and description of outward appearance of a person appeared at the stage of criminalistics. The identification with the help of genetic code of molecule structure, of iris ear, skin of lips were actively introduced last years.

All of above named methods were used in policing. But all of this methods are suffering from grave shortcomings. That is why searching of new methods of identification stay actual in present-day conditions.

Odourology appeared in 50-s between molecule biology, chemistry, electronics and other natural sciences. Odourology is a science studies od odour formation spreading and indetification characteristics, finds physical nature of sense of smell, considering odour and smell as natural phenomenon.

Odour is a volatile substance uninterruptedly producing bi biological organisms or exhalating by physical body. It has possibility to provoke sensation and such characteristics as stability, diffusion, dispersion, dynamics.

All the odours producing by animals are individual because of inimitable geneticcode of molecule on which odour components based. Furthermore digestive products contain odour which provides metabolism process of cellular dissocation and withdrawing out of body with sweat. Metabolites are odourological tracks or tracks od odour.

Odourological tracks, as distinct from odour, are forming as a result of interaction of the source of odour with other objects.

The source od odour is physical body of biological odour and atthe same time-parts of physical body (excretions exfoliation's)

Individuality od odour and unitereuption of it s producing lay the foundation of

odourological method of identification people and animals with help of their tracks of odour. Odourological method has two problems: searching for analyser od odour and how to collect keep and save different gases were invented., functioning as a result of changing of temperature.

Analysers (personal express-analyser of gases, Mohov-Shinkarenco's tube, Colour,

Chrome, Bunsgaard's detector, Electric nose, Electronic Pathfinder and others) reacting on changes of temperature electric, chemical, radioactive parameters of device during interaction of smelling substance. There are some devices based on method of mobile ions such as steam- decetor of demolition explosives, GYD 6, PD 5, detector of plastic blasting charges-Plastic.3 But all of this detectors can identify homogeneus chemical substances and can't identify odoours of biological organisms.

The analysis of human odour showed that butyric acid, one of components od sweat, has it's own individual odour in the meanwhile because chemical analysis of metabolite arouse the distraction of ˘odour's bouquet÷. It's unexplained mysterious phenomenon. Attempts to restore it were in vain. That is why identification by means of different technical devices stay impossible in the meanwhile. But it may be possible in future and it must not put obstacles in further investigation in this field. On the contrary it is necessary to continue experiments, paying much attention to such component od ˘odour's bouquet÷ as diffusion. It's because of individuality of odour depends on proportion of chemical elements.4. So it is possible to say that smell of animals is one of the most effective means of oduorological identification. The unique capacity of animals (especially dog) to recognise master's odour, to chase hunter's bag are making sure that animals capable for human identification.

Orientation by means of smell is one of the most important instincts in dog's life based on reflex of identification. Orientation by means of smell is prevail for dogs over hearing and vision. It helps dog in chasing hot on the heels.

But the track of odour stay at crime scene for a short time hampering. In 1965 a group of soviet scientists introduced method of collection, conservation and using of odours from crime scene. They introduced dogs-biodetectors for identification of criminals, physical evidences contacting with criminals. Their method received state certificate and the first results of instillation were positive.5

Tracks of odour could be find together with footprints, fingerprints, footwear, clothes, together with belongings of crimianl, witness, victim ot things werw in contact. Odour could be absorbted with the help of piece of plannel. After drawing up a report of investigation of crime scene in accordance with the articles N 82 99 138 178 and 181 Criminal Code of Republic Of Belarus it could examined by experts together with comparative models. The results could be put into conclusion of expert in accordance with article N 63 Criminal Code of Republic Of Belarus .

But does it permissible to use odourlogical method in policing for receiving evidences? The authors of method expressed opinion that is possible to use a dog as naturale bio-decetor in odourological examination by experts. There were same objections against it. Some of oponents noticed ˘absence of universally recognsied theory of odour and possibility of verification÷,6 others assumed exploatation of this method by Criminal Investigation Department in searching for criminals.

It is hard to agree with the first objection because of recognition of odourological theory all over the world. The second objection is well-grounded but verification in one of the most important condition to assumption of evidences.7. We have no devices for examination without dogs now. So we have possibility to make the same examination by other experts with the help of other bio-dectors. The results of such examination confirmed by other experts with the help of devices has no any objections against it's using in court proceedings as an evidences.


  1. Koruhov J.G. Kriminalisti_eskaja identifikacija i diagnostika / Kriminalistika, Moskva, 1987, s.58.

  2. Torvaljd J. Vek kriminalistiki, Rostov na Donu, 1996, c.8, 18-89.

  3. Vyhnalek O. Krivinalisticka odorologica identificace Autoref dis randidata pravnih ved Praha, 1985, p. 3-18, Petraneck G. Durwald, H. Schmidt R., Die Bedeutung von geruchspuren fnr die jedentfizicrung, Kriminalistik und fornsishce Wissenschaft, DDR, 1986, N 61-62, p. 139-140, Snetkov V.A., Starovojtov B.I., Kriminalisti_eskoje zna_enje zapahovoj informacii sledov _eloveka (metodi_eskie aspekti) / Voprosii teorii kriminalistiki i ekspertno-kriminalisti_eskih problem, Moskva 1980 s. 3-15.

  4. Luka▄evi_ V.G., Mikroobjekt i zapahovie sledi / Specialnij kurs kriminalistiki, Kiev, 1987, s.139-140. Fedorov G.V., Dergaj G.B., Odorologija i jejo ralj v raskritii I rassledovanii prestuplenij, Minsk, 1996, s. 12-13.

  5. Bezrukov V.V., Vinberg A.N., Majorov M.G., Todorov R.M., Avtorskoe svideteljstvo na izobretenie SSSR N30498 po zajavke N964199 s prioritetom ot 6 marta 1965 goda.

  6. Belkin R.S. , Kriminalistika, Kratkaja enciklopedija, Moskva, 1993, s. 47.

  7. Teorija dokazateljstv, Moskva, 1973 c. 231.

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