POLICING IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West,
© 1996 College of Police and Security Studies, Slovenia


Peter Umek, Kristijan Musek, Gorazd Meško


One of the most interesting concepts of modern psychology are human values. However, the area of individual and group values has not been explored as accurately as someone would expect by its importance, yet.

We may say that values are one of the most fashionable themes in countries that went through transition lately. Concepts like value crisis, moral crisis, changing of value systems, value vacuum, lack of values are bombing us from all kind of media.

We may expect that some changes in value systems and value orientations can be caused by economical, political and other sorts of changes. But we would be too optimistic if we would expect a pure causal connection between the changes in the society and field of values or we would search for analogies between both topics. It is possible to talk about the full collapse of some political systems, but the collapse of values is something unbelievable to happen anywhere. Musek (1993) says that one of the consequences of social changes really are changes of values. But it does not mean that old values are disappearing and the value vacuum is coming. Some values are loosing their importance indeed and some other, new values are growing in their significance. So the concept of value crisis can be legitimate, but only in the mean of reforming the value system and the hierarchy of values

Rokeach (1973) says that: "a value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence." He finds the value system an enduring organization of such beliefs.

Musek (1990) talks about value categories, that are representing our goals or ideals. That is the reason why we strive to reach them. He finds values "generalized and relatively permanent concepts about aims and phenomena, that:

As well as we may find a huge number of different value definitions, we may find a lot of similarities between them. Most authors clearly distinguish a triple nature of values - their motivative, cognitive and emotional aspects.

The great number of different values suggests us that we can expect them to organize in systems. In fact, many authors mention a well organized value systems in which separate values are associated and united into value categories. Simple categories are associated in more complex categories all the way to the level of value macrocategories.

Ideals are closely related to values. We may define them as representations of the most perfect and highest categories of conduct or end states of existence. They can be related with someone's behaviour or achievements (such as sport results, school achievements, working outcomes). Musek (1993) says that the fundamental difference between values and ideals is the fact that ideals represent the highest perfection, which is not always a value. Values, as the matter of fact, represent something desirable and wanted, what perfection sometimes is not. When the ideal is too perfect, too distant to achieve, it becomes out of reach. And when it is out of reach, the motive of achieving it would not appear.

If we talk about values and ideals we should not miss their motivation aspect. However, although values are, by definition, desirable and represent something wanted and highly respected, we may often find a gap between the subject's declared values and behaviour in actual situation. It happens more often with ideals, especially when someone's ideals are too perfect to reach. In such a case a person can only try to approach as close to ideal as possible.

Musek (1993) says that a person does not possess just isolated values, but a well hierarchically organized value system in which specific values are incorporated in more complex value groups. He names this system "the implicit value universum". This universum is not defined only by included values but also by their interacting relations and its own hierarchical structure.

Although we said before that values (and ideals) are enduring beliefs, that doesn't mean they are unchangeable. We can not take someone's values and ideals just taken for granted. Many authors warn that changes can be expected in subject's value system during the life span. Moreover, Several authors note that changes in value orientations are generally universal. Musek (1993) says that the process of value changing has its inner dynamics.

When talking about the changes of value systems, we should not forget the subject of value development. Zupančič (1987) thinks that we can not talk about values in true meaning of concept before reaching the level of formal logical thinking in adolescence, considering that in process of value forming a certain degree of abstraction and generalization is needed.

Montgomery (1984) reports that elderly people see less progress in their future as younger ones. Rokeach (1979) found fourteen (14) developing value patterns connected with age. Amongst the other results he noticed the decreasing importance of hedonistic values, while the importance of individual value - faith or religion was important increasing. Musek (1993) on representative Slovene sample also found out some developmental patterns. He noticed that younger people highly value hedonistic and potential values, while elders evaluate apolonic values as more important. In this group the importance of actualization values increases faster, whilst moral values hold their position more stable and quite high in value hierarchy during the whole lifetime.

There were also several investigations on value phenomena conducted on the police samples all over the world. Many authors tried to find out whether we can define such as concept as police subculture, by it's own value systems.

Putty, Aryee and Kang (1988) on the sample of Singapore's policemen investigated the value differences between policemen with different working experiences. On instrumental values list they noticed several important differences. The younger the policemen were, higher were ranks of values such as: self control, courage, independence and obedience. Authors interpreted that as a result of too idealized perception of police work characteristics. They concluded that differences between police recruits and experienced policemen are a result of unfinished process of recruits' socialization into police professional subculture.

Weiss (1992) in Germany noticed that the family came in the center of policemen's interest, replacing the profession. Policemen in his sample ranked highly the values of family life. He interpreted his other results as summarized below:

  1. The tendency to the self-actualization values was recognized, and yet there was an evident bond to traditional values.
  2. Policemen showed themselves as self-confident and critical, thinking with their own heads - the old gendarme mentality is gone.
  3. Policemen see themselves as citizens, not as servants of the government.
  4. Policemen does not find their profession as one of the highest ranked, but yet as an quite important one.

Results of the research conducted by Storms, Penn and Tenzell (1990) in USA, showed some interesting differences between perception of actual and ideal policemen. Their results showed very clear perception of ideal policeman that should be very good, determined, strong, fast, correct, responsible, masculine, flexible and considerate.

If we would like to point out that police profession has its very specific working conditions, we may expect all this to display in their values as well as in their professional ideals. We may look for connections between the police profession and values in two ways:

  1. We may expect that police recruits have already formed specific pattern of value system and certain ideas about the police work that lead them to enter the police,
  2. We may expect that experiences in police work have influence on the process of values changing as well as on the process of changing the perception of professional ideals.


The goal of our research was to investigate values and professional ideals of Slovene detectives. We tried to find out which values they rank higher or lower and how they perceive their profession. The image of the ideal detective was explored, too. We tried to find out how values and the image of ideal detective change during the years in service. Also the connection between personality structure of detectives and their values was investigated.


Following hypotheses were operationalised:

Hypothesis 1.:  Detectives have a clear value hierarchy.

Hypothesis 2.:  Detectives have a clear image of a professional ideal. 

Hypothesis 3.:  Detectives' values change with experience depending upon the years of 


Hypothesis 4.:  Detectives' professional ideal changes with experience during the years of 


Hypothesis 5.:  Detectives with different personality structure differently evaluate certain 


Hypothesis 6.:  Detectives with different personality structure perceive the professional ideal 




Data from 292 Slovene detectives were collected in the research, amongst them 26 (9%) women. There were no important differences in results. That was the reason for inclusion female detectives in sample as well as males.

An average working experience of the detective in our sample was 9 years. The youngest detective had 2 and the oldest one 28 years of working experience.


Three instruments were used in the research:


Data were processed by:

The data were processed with SPSS for Windows statistical package.



We were interested in the detectives' ranking of individual values. The Pogačnik's list of 22 individual values was used. The Pogačnik's instrument is a rank type list and results are later translated to a seven degree scale, on which a higher grade means greater importance of a certain value. With this transformation we enable the further statistic procession.

TABLE 1: Values, listed after the transformation by decreasing mean value.


Variable                   Mean  Std Dev   Minimum   Maximum      N


PARTNER                    5,38     1,13         2         7    283

CHILDREN                   5,30     1,21         1         7    281

FREEDOM                    5,05     1,38         1         7    285

LOVE                       4,88     1,22         1         7    283

PROFESSION                 4,67     1,04         2         7    281

SELF-ACTUALIZATION         4,49     1,16         1         7    280

WISDOM                     4,45     1,24         1         7    283

SECURITY                   4,42     1,16         1         7    280

FRIENDSHIP                 4,40     1,25         1         7    282

CREATIVITY                 4,19     1,07         2         7    283

PARENTS                    4,01     1,12         1         7    281

PRINCIPLES                 3,98     1,28         1         7    282

WEALTH                     3,83     1,03         1         7    281

NEW EXPERIENCES            3,83     1,03         1         7    281

REPUTATION                 3,78      ,95         1         7    282

SOCIABILITY                3,63     1,22         1         7    266

COMFORT                    3,52     1,19         1         7    281

RELAXATION                 3,36      ,92         1         6    281

POWER                      3,33     1,06         1         7    279

BEAUTY                     3,31     1,06         1         7    280

GOOD FOOD                  3,09     1,15         1         7    277

FAITH                      1,66     1,21         1         7    278


On the highest ranks of the table we find following values: partner, children, freedom, love and profession. We may say that detectives rank some traditional and family values as well as profession with highest ranks. A bit lower, but still ranked as very important, we find some values connected with self-realization such as self actualization and wisdom as typical apolonic values.

On the lowest ranks of the list we find mostly hedonistic values, e.g.: comfort, relaxation, beauty, good food. Such results show that detectives attribute hedonistic pleasures as less important. We may also find a group of achievement values with wealth and reputation only a few ranks higher then power.

The lowest rank of the list is occupied by the value faith. We have to explain that the Slovenian expression "VERA" is used in original instrument. This Slovene word means RELIGION as well as FAITH and our suggestion is that as a translation the word religion should fit more in this case. An interesting phenomenon is that most of the participants ranked this value as the least important of all, and on the other hand a minority of them put it right to the top of the list.

The results in Table 1 are very alike to results on representative Slovene samples (Musek (1993) and Lešnik (1995)). Similarities are also shown when the hierarchical structures of value systems of all samples are compared in other part of the research. There are also some differences, which can be ascribed to specific police population. However, on this stage of the research it would be much to early to talk about any specific detective's value system.


In this part of the research the professional ideals of Slovene detectives have been investigated. We tried to find out which personality features and competencies are estimated as more important for their work. A respondent estimates the importance of a certain feature or competence on a five degree scale. He also demonstrates a perception of professional ideal simultaneously.

TABLE 2: Importance of 33 personality features and competencies listed in decreasing order by mean value.


Variable                 Mean  Std Dev   Minimum   Maximum      N   


PROFESSIONALISM          4,59      ,60         3         5    275

LAW OBEDIENCE            4,56      ,68         1         5    273

LOGIC                    4,53      ,60         3         5    274

FLEXIBILITY              4,52      ,58         2         5    275

COMMUNICATION            4,49      ,68         1         5    274

INVENTIVENESS            4,46      ,69         1         5    275

SELF-CONFIDENCE          4,43      ,59         3         5    275

WORKING INTEREST         4,42      ,66         1         5    272

INDEPENDENCE             4,42      ,68         1         5    275

PERSISTENCE              4,39      ,62         3         5    272

CONCENTRATION            4,38      ,65         2         5    274

JUDGMENT                 4,37      ,62         3         5    275

EXPERIENCE               4,36      ,68         1         5    276

PATIENCE                 4,34      ,67         2         5    275

AGILITY                  4,33      ,79         1         5    275

INTELLIGENCE             4,24      ,69         2         5    275

EMOTIONAL STABILITY      4,22      ,76         1         5    275

TEAM WORK                4,20      ,82         1         5    275

MORALITY                 4,16      ,79         2         5    275

INITIATIVITY             4,14      ,75         1         5    270

DIPLOMACY                4,13      ,79         1         5    273

CREATIVITY               4,03      ,75         1         5    271

FRIENDSHIP               4,03      ,88         1         5    272

HEALTH                   3,98      ,85         1         5    274

COURAGE                  3,96      ,91         1         5    275

RELAXATION               3,92      ,82         1         5    275

PRESENTING IDEAS         3,86      ,77         1         5    274

VIGOROUSITY              3,75      ,82         1         5    275

SKEPTICISM               3,67     1,00         1         5    274

SOCIABILITY              3,51      ,87         1         5    275

OUTLOOK                  3,14     1,06         1         5    272

SOCIAL SENSE             3,04      ,98         1         5    275

SENSITIVITY              2,95     1,05         1         5    274


We may see that detectives attribute higher grades to the most of the features (competencies). Grading them higher than with 3 (the neutral grade) means they find most of them important or very important.

The most important features (competencies) for detectives' work are as shown above professionalism, law obedience, logic, flexibility, communication skills, inventiveness, self- confidence and working interest. Those features (competencies) are found to be the most important for their work.

Lower on the list of features (competencies), but still graded with 3.5 or more (which means quite important) are: competence of presenting own ideas, vigorousity, skepticism and sociability.

At the bottom of the list are following features: outlook, social sense and sensitivity. Those features are graded much lower than others, but still attributed as those of average importance.

Comparing our results with those of Storms, Penn and Tenzell (1988), we may find some similarities, although different instruments were used. For our detectives some of the most important features of ideal policeman are: law obeying, flexibility, inventiveness, self- confidence..., while US policemen described the ideal policeman as accountable, adaptable, determined as well as insensitive, distanced, masculine. We can clearly see connections between those two descriptions.

5.3 Working experience and values

We tried to find out if and how detectives' values are influenced by working experience. The main question is whether any changes occur in detectives' value system during the years of service. We separated our sample in three groups, as shown below:

  1. a group of less experienced detectives (with 2-4 years experience in police work),
  2. a group of average experienced detectives (with 5-11 years experience),
  3. a group of more experienced detectives (with 12 up to 28 years of service).

Table 3: A sample of detectives separated by working experience.


Group                     Frequency    Percent    Valid %    Cum. %


1. less experienced           88          30,1       35,5      35,5   

2. average experienced        84          28,8       33,9      69,4      

3. more experienced           76          26,0       30,6     100,0

Together                     248          84,9      100,0               


Table 3: The importance of 22 values in three separated groups.


                GROUP 1                     GROUP 2                       GROUP 3


Rank   Value                Mean   Value                Mean     Value                Mean

  1    PARTNER              5,32    PARTNER              5,48    PARTNER              5,50 

  2    CHILDREN             5,24    CHILDREN             5,31    CHILDREN             5,47 

  3    FREEDOM              4,82    FREEDOM              5,11    FREEDOM              5,16 

  4    LOVE                 4,78    LOVE                 4,98    LOVE                 4,84 

  5    PROFESSION           4,70    PROFESSION           4,56    PROFESSION           4,75 

  6    SELF-ACTUALIZATION   4,69    SECURITY             4,47    SELF-ACTUALIZATION   4,55 

  7    WISDOM               4,56    FRIENDSHIP           4,41    SECURITY             4,49 

  8    FRIENDSHIP           4,47    SELF-ACTUALIZATION   4,36    WISDOM               4,38 

  9    SECURITY             4,31    WISDOM               4,34    FRIENDSHIP           4,28 

 10    CREATIVITY           4,26    CREATIVITY           4,12    PRINCIPLES           4,22 

 11    NEW EXPERIENCES      4,07    PARENTS              4,06    CREATIVITY           4,13 

 12    PARENTS              4,01    PRINCIPLES           3,98    PARENTS              4,08 

 13    PRINCIPLES           3,81    WEALTH               3,90    WEALTH               3,83 

 14    REPUTATION           3,79    NEW EXPERIENCES      3,84    REPUTATION           3,76 

 15    SOCIABILITY          3,73    COMFORT              3,78    NEW EXPERIENCES      3,67 

 16    WEALTH               3,69    REPUTATION           3,73    SOCIABILITY          3,62 

 17    POWER                3,48    SOCIABILITY          3,62    BEAUTY               3,45 

 18    RELAXATION           3,44    RELAXATION           3,32    RELAXATION           3,32 

 19    COMFORT              3,37    GOOD FOOD            3,31    COMFORT              3,30 

 20    BEAUTY               3,09    BEAUTY               3,28    POWER                3,13 

 21    GOOD FOOD            3,08    POWER                3,20    GOOD FOOD            2,95 

 22    FAITH                1,79    FAITH                1,75    FAITH                1,41 


We can see that exactly the same values are on the top five ranks in all three groups. It looks that those values are generally important to all detectives. It does not matter how experienced they are. We can also notice consensus when comparing several of the lowest ranked values.

Some differences occur in the middle of the lists. We may not affirm them to be of statistical significance before we compare all three results with analysis of variance.

Table 5: Differences in value attribution between three groups of detectives.


  Value               Wilks' lambda          F           Sig.  


  COMFORT                  ,96313          4,1157        ,0176**

  NEW EXPERIENCES          ,96824          3,5264        ,0311**

  POWER                    ,97269          3,0181        ,0510*

  FAITH                    ,97478          2,7817        ,0642*

  PRINCIPLES               ,97825          2,3904        ,0940*


We can see that only two values are estimated differently (with statistical significance) from group to group. In other three cases a tendency to significant difference is noticed. The importance of value new experiences is getting lower with experience. Value comfort is highly evaluated by average experienced detectives, while other two groups estimate it lower.

Canonical discriminant analysis was also applied to determine which values differ our three groups the most. The results confirmed previous (ANOVA) findings.

We can find some similarities as well as differences in comparison of our findings with the findings of Putti, Aryee & Kang (1988) who conducted a research on Singapore policemen. The Singapore research indicated noticeable changes on instrumental values sphere. Four out of the five values that our three groups estimated differently are in fact typical instrumental values. Value comfort is a terminal value, estimated higher by our second group than by other two and such a trend was also shown in Singapore study.


Table 6: Statistically significant differences in personality features attribution.


Feature/Competence              Wilks' Lambda        F          Sig.


  EXPERIENCE                       ,91783         10,1167      ,0001**

  INDEPENDENCE                     ,96410          4,2075      ,0161**

  SKEPTICISM                       ,97040          3,4474      ,0335**

  INITIATIVITY                     ,97343          3,0840      ,0477**

  AGILITY                          ,97398          3,0184      ,0509*

  SENSITIVITY                      ,97522          2,8708      ,0587*

  TEAM WORK                        ,97605          2,7726      ,0646*

  LOGIC                            ,97920          2,3998      ,0930*


Results show that four features are estimated differently (with statistical significance) from group to group. In other four cases a tendency towards significant difference is noticeable. Experience is the competence that detectives from our three groups estimate very differently. It's importance is rising with real experience in police job.

The canonical discriminant analysis was applied after the ANOVA and it's results confirmed the ANOVA.


In this part of the study we tried to investigate the relation between detectives' personal structure and their value system.

Table 7: Results on EPQ.


Variable               Mean     Std Dev   Minimum   Maximum  


PSYCHOTICISM           4,30       2,49         0        14   

EXTRAVERSION          13,35       4,49         1        21   

NEUROTICISM            9,04       5,20         0        21   

LIE SCALE             10,82       4,45         1        21   


We may see that respondents in our sample express quite high level of extraversion and neuroticism. Psychoticism is also high. The problem is present in extremely high result on the lie scale, what indicates a strong tendency to social desirability.

Table 8: Correlation between detectives' results on EPQ and value attribution.


Value            Psychot.    Extrav.    Neurot.     Lie


LOVE              ,1718**    ,0731      ,0455     -,1487*

WISDOM            ,0857     -,0210     -,0430     -,1347*

NEW EXPERIENCES   ,0231      ,0608     -,1440*    -,0246

PROFESSION       -,2157**   -,0954     -,1781**    ,2611**

PARTNER          -,1730**   -,0590     -,0844      ,1021

PARENTS          -,0357     -,1377*     ,0111      ,1163

PRINCIPLES       -,1682**   -,0489     -,0623      ,1100

COMFORT           ,1185*    -,0316      ,0554     -,0737


8 out of 22 values correlate with at least one of EPQ scales with statistical significance.

Correlation with psychoticism scale:

Correlation with extraversion scale:

Correlation with neuroticism scale:

Correlation with lie scale


We investigated the relation between detectives' personal structure and their evaluating of personal features and competencies, required for police service. We tried to find out if detective's personality structure reflects on his representation of professional ideals.

Table 9: Correlation between detectives' results on EPQ and value features attribution.


Feature/Competency            Psychot.    Extrav.    Neurot.     Lie   


SELF-CONFIDENCE               ,0035      ,1849**   -,2296**    ,0729   

COURAGE                       ,0221      ,1330*    -,0395      ,1190*  

EMOTIONAL STABILITY          -,0093      ,1884**   -,2038**    ,0654   

LAW OBEDIENCE                -,0041      ,0711     -,0443      ,1404*  

COMMUNICATION                 ,0449      ,2057**   -,0635      ,0021   

HEALTH                        ,0369      ,0704     -,0587      ,1304*  

INVENTIVENESS                 ,0919      ,1578**   -,0635      ,0015   

INDEPENDENCE                 -,1270*    -,0137     -,0461      ,1150   

AGILITY                      -,1241*    -,0630     -,0094      ,1684** 

RELAXATION                   -,0348      ,0667     -,1334*     ,1174   

SKEPTICISM                    ,1483*    -,0679      ,0434      ,0214   

CONCENTRATION                -,0451      ,0500     -,1166      ,1523*  

TEAM WORK                     ,0282      ,0845     -,1836**    ,1329*  

SOCIABILITY                   ,0965      ,2272**   -,1432*     ,0665   

VIGOROUSITY                   ,1320*     ,1603**   -,0802     -,0098   

PRESENTING IDEAS              ,0372      ,0543     -,1330*     ,0212   

FRIENDSHIP                    ,1317*     ,1022     -,0411      ,1138   

WORKING INTEREST             -,0414     -,0217     -,0110      ,1581** 

OUTLOOK                      -,0437      ,0837     -,0020      ,1516*  


19 out of 33 individual personality features and competencies correlate with at least one of EPQ scales with statistical significance.

Correlation with psychoticism scale:

Correlation with extroversion scale:

Correlation with neuroticism scale:

Correlation with lie scale:


Our results show us the picture of values, value systems and professional ideals amongst Slovene detectives. With such multilateral results it would be sensible to elucidate them in the light of the formerly operationalised hypothesis .

Hypothesis 1.:

Detectives have a clear value hierarchy.

Our results confirm the hypothesis. Detectives' value scale is very similar to value scale in representative sample of Slovene population (Musek 1993) and it's hierarchy is evident.

Our results compare with the research of Putti, Aryee and Kang (Singapore, 1988) show many similarities. In all cases family life and traditional values are on the top of the value hierarchy, with self-realization values behind them. We may conclude that lower ranks are occupied with hedonistic values and a single value faith is separated on the lowest rank, just as some other Slovene studies revealed (Musek 1994 and Lešnik 1995).

Hypothesis 2.:

Detectives have a clear image of a professional ideal.

The hypothesis is confirmed. Our results show that a "policeman professional ideal" exists. That image may be a result of previous anticipation and projections as well as experience in a everyday police work situation. We can find a high degree of resemblance in comparison of our results with those reported by Storms, Penn and Tenzell (1990), even though different research methods were used

Hypothesis 3.:

Detectives' values change with experience depending upon the years of service

The hypothesis is confirmed. Our results showed that detectives' values are not something rigid. Several trends of values changes during the years in service have been noticed. Several values are getting more important and others are loosing their significance. Mentioned trends are similar to those of which Putti, Aryee and Kang (Singapore, 1988) report. We may ascribe those trends as a result of growing experience in service.

Hypothesis 4.:
Detectives' professional ideal changes with experience during years of service.

This hypothesis is also confirmed. Results show that the image of ideal policeman changes during the years of service as a result of actual working experience. We could relate the transformation process of this image with the process of socialization in police subculture.

Some research projects show that the difference between professional ideal and someone's self description is reducing during the years of service. But this difference is sometimes very hard to define because of a strong tendency to social desirability among the policemen. This tendency, also indicated in our research, is making the investigation of actual image of policemen as well as professional ideals, harder and more difficult.

Hypothesis 5.:

Detectives with different personality structure differently evaluate certain values.

Results showed that some differences in value estimation are correlated to detectives' personality structure, but the number of indicated connections was insignificant. Such results correspond with findings of others authors. Their findings resemble in conclusion that values are a relatively independent category of psychical phenomena. The nature of our results reject the hypothesis.

Hypothesis 6.:

Detectives with different personality structure perceive the professional ideal differently.

Results confirm the hypothesis. Moreover, they showed that detectives attribute their own personality features to their image of professional ideal.

Results of our survey show that detectives values are similar to values in the wider Slovene population. Even though some differences are evident, they could be ascribed to specific conditions of police work and mentality. We might conclude that detectives' "values space" and its inner hierarchy are generally the same as in wider population but also reflect some peculiarities which could be find also in reports from other countries. This specific patterns are presumably a result of a process of projection which also determine the image of professional ideal

The process of value changing is evident in our sample as in wider Slovene population (Musek, 1993). As well as values, the image of professional ideals change. We might connect this changing process with three different trends: a lifespan values changing process, the accumulation of experience and the process of socialization into the police population.

Results show that detectives' personality structure differs a bit from wider Slovene population trends. It seems that detectives' personality structure is reflecting on their image of professional ideals, as we may see a number of significant correlation's between the two variables.

Finally, we should point out that our results are similar to results of some other studies, conducted all over the world lately. It seems that concepts of policemen values and professional ideals are legitimate enough to be a subject of discussion. Not only in our police population but even more generally and universally.

Therefore values as well as professional ideals in police forces are important topics and they should be more systematically studied. If we consider that values are amongst the strongest motivators of one's behaviour and conduct, we should not neglect their importance in the police studies. For, as Sielaff (1992) established: studying values could enable better results and the police work being more effective as well in education process and selection process as in police management and organization.

Table of Contents | The Relation Between Job Satisfaction, Job Frustration and Narcissism and Attitudes Towards Professional Ethical Behavior Among Police Officers

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