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NCJRS Celebrates National Library Week April 12-18

National Library Week

Started in 1958, National Library Week is a nationwide observance celebrated by all types of libraries - including the NCJRS Virtual Library. NCJRS invites you to explore the breadth and scope of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection and services. With more than 220,000 collection documents and 60,000 online resources, including all known Office of Justice Programs works, it is one of the world’s largest criminal justice special collections.

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NCJRS Abstract

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How to Obtain Documents
NCJ Number: NCJ 227933     Find in a Library
Title: Use of Infrared Imaging, a Robust Matching Engine, and Associated Algorithms to Enhance Identification of Both 2D and 3D Impressions
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): Francine Prokoski
Date Published: 06/2009
Page Count: 44
  Annotation: In examining the potential for infrared (IR) imaging to improve the utility of forensic firearm/tool-mark evidence, this project focused on the following evidence items: used cartridge cases, tool scrapes on metal, and footwear impressions.
Abstract: Regarding used cartridge cases, the study found that due to the constancy of tool-mark features in IR images, and by eliminating the need to adjust lighting to highlight features, IR imaging and matching of cartridge cases required less time than current IBIS procedures. IR imaging produced a false positive rate of less than 0.005 percent. The results show a potential for significant savings in examiner time spent reviewing incorrect candidate matches in making conclusive identifications through conventional microscopy. IR imaging and matching of tool marks created by screwdrivers was also examined in this project. The technique developed produced a barcode representation of the tool mark that could be matched manually or automatically to barcodes of other marks. In a study of 100 tools (200 edges), the technique was effective in matching marks made by different people with the same tool. Regarding footwear impressions, two-dimensional IR imaging produced images of footwear impressions under dim light and total darkness. It also produced detailed images of athletic shoe-sole patterns without controlled lighting. Three-dimensional (3D) IR imaging produced dimensionally accurate 3D digital models of footwear and footwear impressions simply and rapidly. The primary advantage of IR imaging over visible light imaging for footwear evidence is its production of more consistent feature details under conditions of uncontrolled lighting. Feature contrast in IR images can generally be enhanced by air flow over the features, which differentially heats or cools portions of the features. This report proposes a three-part continuation of this project to include ammunition components, as well as further work in tool marks and footwear impressions. The IR imaging procedures used in each of the experiments are described in detail, along with the background of IR metrology. Extensive figures
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Toolmark identification ; Evidence identification and analysis ; Shoe prints and tire tracks ; Infrared techniques ; Forensics/Forensic Sciences ; Investigative techniques ; NIJ final report
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 2007-DN-BX-K169
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Country: United States of America
Language: English
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