skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 229853 Find in a Library
Title: California Study Looks at Factors Leading to Parole Revocation
Journal: Corrections Today  Volume:71  Issue:5  Dated:October 2009  Pages:122-123
Series: NIJ Update
Author(s): Janet Mandelstam
Date Published: October 2009
Page Count: 2
Document: PDF
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article reports on a California study that examined why so many parolees return to prison (6 out of 10 admissions to California prisons) and the consequences for the State's criminal justice system.
Abstract: Regarding the personal characteristics of parolees, the study found that the strongest predictor of a parole violation was the number of times the parolee had been in prison as an adult; the risk for all types of violations was highest during the first 6 months after release from prison. The intensity of parole supervision apparently did not deter violations; in fact, more intensive supervision increased the likelihood of detecting all types of violations. Regarding the link between parole agents' characteristics and parole violations, only the parole agent's gender was a factor. Female agents were apparently more forgiving of low-level offenses such as drug use, whereas male agents were more forgiving of absconding. The study also found that the neighborhood to which a parolee returned promoted or discouraged behavior that leads to violation. Parolees who lived in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods were more likely to abscond, but were not a greater risk for other violations. Where substance abuse and mental health treatment were available, low-level criminal violations were less likely. The study found that 77 percent of all criminal violation cases resulted in a return to prison, as decided by a court or a ruling of the Board of Parole Hearings (BPH). Once a court referred a case to the BPH, a greater percentage of cases resulted in parole revocation. Whereas a court sent 25 percent of parolees back to jail, the BPH incarcerated 73 percent of parolees who committed criminal violations. Based on these findings, recommendations for policy changes are offered.
Main Term(s): Corrections research
Index Term(s): California; Parole; Parole effectiveness; Parole supervision; Parole violations; Parolees; Probation or parole officers; Revocation
Note: Findings and conclusions reported in this article are based on the report "Parole Violations and Revocations in California."
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.