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NCJ Number: 98382 Find in a Library
Title: Community Service Orders (From Crime and Justice - An Annual Review of Research, Volume 6, P 51-94, 1985, Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, ed. - See NCJ-98380)
Author(s): K Pease
Date Published: 1985
Page Count: 44
Sponsoring Agency: University of Chicago Press
Chicago, IL 60637
Sale Source: University of Chicago Press
1427 East 60th Street
Chicago, IL 60637
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The use, implementation, and policy implications of community service orders are examined within the context of research into the British experience.
Abstract: Community service orders are penal sanctions in whichconfirmed this convicted offenders are placed in unpaid positions with nonprofit or governmental agencies. Proponents typically urge use of community service as an alternative to imprisonment. The most extensive and studied use of community service has been in the United Kingdom where enabling legislation was passed in 1970. Pilot programs were initiated in six districts in 1973. By the late 1970's, community service programs were in place throughout the United Kingdom. In 1982, more than 30,000 orders were imposed on 8 percent of offenders sentenced for serious crimes. A major Home Office evaluation of the system used four different methods to calculate the extent to which those sentenced to community service would otherwise have been imprisoned. By every method, it appeared that no more than half would have been imprisoned. Other studies have confirmed this finding. For community service to be justified as an alternative to incarceration but used as a supplement to nonincarcerative sentences is hypocritical. Offenders who would have been imprisoned in the absence of orders may later find themselves imprisoned for violation of an order. Among the major problems of implementation are disparities in the extent of imposition of orders, the length of orders, and the use of sanctions against offenders who do not comply with orders. The few efforts to assess the impact of the use of orders on recidivism have yielded inconclusive results. Directions for reform are suggested, and 101 references are provided. (Author abstract modified)
Index Term(s): Alternatives to institutionalization; Community service order; Corrections policies; Literature reviews; Policy analysis; Program implementation; Sentence effectiveness; United Kingdom (UK)
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