skip navigation

LIBRARY

Abstract Database

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

To download this abstract, check the box next to the NCJ number then click the "Back To Search Results" link. Then, click the "Download" button on the Search Results page. Also see the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 161247 Find in a Library
Title: Cigarettes, Alcohol, Marijuana: Gateways to Illicit Drug Use
Author(s): J C Merrill; K S Fox; S R Lewis; G E Pulver
Corporate Author: National Ctr on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA)
United States of America
Date Published: 1994
Page Count: 63
Sponsoring Agency: Carnegie Corporation of New York
New York, NY 10036
Ford Foundation
New York, NY 10017
National Ctr on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA)
New York, NY 10017-6706
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Princeton, NJ 08543
Sale Source: National Ctr on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA)
633 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10017-6706
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examines the relationship of smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol to the use of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and other illicit drugs.
Abstract: The analysis is based on a review of the medical and scientific literature, various State and regional studies, anecdotal evidence, and the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, which surveys more than 30,000 American households. The study found that 89 percent of those individuals who use cocaine first used all three "gateway" substances; 99.9 percent who use cocaine first used a gateway drug. Ninety percent of children and adults who use marijuana first smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Children 12-17 years old who use marijuana are 85 times more likely to use cocaine than children who never used marijuana; those who drink alcohol are 50 times more likely to use cocaine, and those who smoke cigarettes are 19 times more likely to use cocaine. Children 12-17 years old who use all three gateway drugs are 266 times more likely to use cocaine than children who never used a gateway drug. The study also found that the younger children are when they use gateway drugs, and the more often they use them, the more likely they are to use cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, and other illicit drugs. An adult who uses all three gateway drugs is up to 323 times more likely to use cocaine. An adult who smoked cigarettes as a child is three times more likely to use cocaine regularly than an adult who never used these substances as a child; an adult who drank alcohol as a child is six times more likely to use cocaine regularly, and an adult who used marijuana as a child is 17 times more likely to use cocaine regularly. Implications of the findings for future action are discussed. A 19-item bibliography, 25 data charts, and appended description of the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
Main Term(s): Juvenile drug abusers
Index Term(s): Drug abuse causes; Marijuana; Tobacco use; Underage Drinking
Note: DCC.
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=161247

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.