skip navigation


Abstract Database

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

To download this abstract, check the box next to the NCJ number then click the "Back To Search Results" link. Then, click the "Download" button on the Search Results page. Also see the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 213919 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Influences of Personal, Injunctive, and Descriptive Norms on Early Adolescent Substance Use
Journal: Journal of Drug Issues  Volume:36  Issue:1  Dated:Winter 2006  Pages:147-172
Author(s): Elvira Elek; Michelle Miller-Day; Michael L. Hecht
Date Published: 2006
Page Count: 26
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Bethesda, MD 20892-9561
Grant Number: 1 R01 DA 14825;R01 DA 05629
Type: Research (Applied/Empirical)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined the influences of injunctive, descriptive, and personal norms, as well as the contextual factors of gender and ethnicity on the concurrent substance use of adolescents.
Abstract: Evidence is provided that support the ideas that norms behave differently for different substances and under different time frames. Injunctive, personal, and descriptive norms significantly influence substance use. However, personal norms are found to have a relatively stronger influence. Personal norms play a stronger role in predicting marijuana and alcohol use than cigarette use. Parents appear to play a stronger role than friends with regards to reports of recent substance use, while the reverse appears true for reports of lifetime substance use. In examining the contextual factors of gender and ethnicity, gender demonstrated some moderating effects on the relationship between norms and substance use. The type of substance seemed significant. Overall, the likelihood of substance use appeared more associated with norms of boys than for girls, particularly personal norms against the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) or perceptions that their parents would express anger if they engaged in ATOD use. Ethnicity did not produce as many effects as gender. However, personal norms seemed especially important for the large Mexican/Mexican-American sub-sample. Descriptive norms appeared more important with regards to the marijuana use of Mexican/Mexican-Americans. The study sample of 4,030 students consisted of 2,245 Mexican/Mexican-Americans (48 percent female), 676 Latino or other multiethnic Latino origin (52 percent female), 756 non-Hispanic White students (49 percent female), and 353 African-American students (44 percent female). Tables, references
Main Term(s): Adolescent chemical dependency
Index Term(s): Adolescent females; Adolescent males; Adolescents at risk; Black/African Americans; Drug use; Ethnic groups; Gender issues; Hispanic Americans; Juvenile drug abusers; Juvenile drug use; Mexican Americans; Underage Drinking
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.