skip navigation


Abstract Database

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

To download this abstract, check the box next to the NCJ number then click the "Back To Search Results" link. Then, click the "Download" button on the Search Results page. Also see the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 250720 Find in a Library
Title: Out of the Shadows: A Tool for the Identification of Victims of Human Trafficking
Author(s): Laura Simich
Corporate Author: Vera Institute of Justice
United States of America
Date Published: June 2014
Page Count: 7
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
Vera Institute of Justice
New York, NY 10279
Grant Number: 2011-MU-MU-0066
Sale Source: Vera Institute of Justice
233 Broadway, 12th Floor
New York, NY 10279
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Measurement/Evaluation Device; Report (Grant Sponsored); Report (Study/Research); Report (Technical Assistance); Research (Applied/Empirical)
Format: Document; Document (Online)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This report presents a questionnaire that has been statistically validated to elicit evidence of adult or minor responders being victims of sex or labor trafficking.
Abstract: The landmark Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 first made trafficking in persons a Federal crime; however, reliable screening tools and procedures have not been available for victim identification and systematic data collection. Although every State has enacted anti-trafficking legislation, only a small fraction of trafficking victims have been identified, because victims are commonly hidden and living in fear of intimidating traffickers and employers. The screening tool may be used in its full 30-question form and the shorter 16-question version, with each version having different advantages depending on the user and the context. Validating data analysis determined how well the screening tool worked, both in its ability to distinguish trafficking victims from victims of other crime and to differentiate between victims of sex and labor trafficking. The effectiveness of the tool depends on its appropriate use. This requires building trust between screeners and potential victims. Screeners must take a victim-centered approach and be sensitive to the trauma and fear that victims have generally endured before attempting to obtain facts about trafficking crimes or a victim’s long-term needs. Service providers participating in the study suggested several strategies for developing trust with trafficking victims that were incorporated into user guidelines. Chief among these strategies is offering victims a sense of safety and meeting their material and psychological needs by providing shelter in the near term and legal assistance and case management in the longer term. 10 notes and listing of sources for additional information
Main Term(s): Victim identification
Index Term(s): Instrument validation; National Institute of Justice (NIJ); NIJ final report; Screening Instruments; Testing and measurement; Trafficking in Persons; Victims of Crime
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.