Chapter 20 Innovative Technologies and
the Information Age
The Information Age holds tremendous promise for victims of crime and those who serve them. Innovative technologies are being utilized to streamline criminal and juvenile justice processes; create a "seamless" delivery of services to constituents, including victims; and strengthen our nation's capabilities to assist and serve victims. The wide-ranging potential offered by the Internet provides up-to-date information and resources on-line, including many from the U.S. Department of Justice, to victims and victim service providers.
Upon completion of this chapter, students will understand the following concepts:
Information is power.
With the explosion of the Information Age, and the expansion of the "Information Superhighway," victims and service providers have multiple opportunities to augment their individual and collective power by accessing and sharing information electronically. Information forms the foundation upon which many victims' rights and services are based, such as the following:
Since 1995, virtually all of these types of information are available on-line to any victim or service provider who has a personal computer, telephone line, and modem.
The growth in technological applications to manage the expansion and development of victim service organizations, enhance case management and tracking information for both victims and offenders, and simplify and expand communications through the worldwide "Information Superhighway," holds great promise for the discipline of victims' rights and services. Knowledge about and use of existing and emerging technologies can save greatly needed time, money, and human resources for victim advocates and crime victims (Seymour 1995, 1).
The primary purpose of the victim service discipline is to help crime victims obtain three basic objectives: rights, recovery, and respect. Yet victims are often barred from securing these objectives by ignorance, misimpressions, and lack of information. In a very real sense, information is the key that allows access to victims' rights, recovery, and respect. Unless victims are made aware of their rights, as well as how and when to exercise them, such rights have no meaning or usefulness. Simply put, information is the means to victim service providers' ends. Indeed, it is the stock and trade of the victim service discipline and the driving force behind most services for victims of crime. How victim advocates are able to gather, synthesize, analyze, expand, distribute, and dispense this precious commodity has a direct impact on the success of the victims' rights movement (Beatty 1995, 1).
Technology Assessment of the Victims' Rights Discipline
A key component of the "Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims" project sponsored in 1997/98 by the National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), with support from the Office for Victims of Crime, was a nationwide assessment to establish a "benchmark" of how and/or if victim service organizations utilize technology to enhance administrative, case management, and victim service processes. A total of 6,100 surveys were directly mailed to potential respondents, with 1,345 surveys returned to the NCVC.
The survey assessment examined agencies' hardware configurations, operating systems, and Internet and on-line services. The findings provide an important and useful "snapshot" of technological applications in victim services.
Over one third of victim service organizations (34%) have a network installed within their agencies. One-half of responding organizations (51%) utilize laptops, and over one-half (52%) use modems (with an average of 1.3 modems per organization).
The overwhelming majority of organizations (69%) have laserjet printers. A surprisingly high percentage of victim service agencies (27%) have color printers.
|Total Number Of:||Number |
|% Of Total Respondents|
|Organizations that have a network installed.||455||34%|
|Organizations using a PC(s)||1,159||86%|
|PCs used in the responding organizations|
(an average of 9.5 per organization).
|Macintoshes used in the organizations.||393||29%|
|Laptops used in the organizations.||688||51%|
|Staff per PC (average).||4.17||N/A|
|Organizations that use a modem.||702||52%|
|Modems used in the organizations|
(an average of 1.3 per organization).
|Modems with fax capabilities (N = 1,758).||575||33%|
|Daisy wheel printers.||81||06%|
|Ink jet printers.||575||43%|
Over one-third of survey respondents (37%) utilize Windows 95 as their operating system. When one stops to consider that the 95 version of Windows was relatively new when this survey was conducted, it is significant that over one-third of responding agencies possessed this upgraded version.
|Total Number Of:||Number |
|Organizations using Windows 3.0||46||03%|
|Organizations using Windows 3.1||529||39%|
|Organizations using Windows 95||504||37%|
INTERNET AND ONLINE SERVICES
Although this survey was completed in July 1997, it is still somewhat surprising that only one-third (33%) of victim service organizations are connected to the Internet, either at the office, at home, or both.
|Total Number Of:||Number |
|Organizations that have office access to the Internet.||322||24%|
|Organizations that have home access to the Internet.||75||06%|
|Office and home access to the Internet.||47||03%|
|Total number with office and/or home Internet access.||444||33%|
Of the 444 respondents that have office and/or home Internet access, 338 (33%) use Netscape Navigator, and 122 (27%) use Microsoft Explorer, as their search engine.
A surprisingly low number of the 901 respondents who do not currently have Internet access expressed an interest in doing so in the future. Specifically:
Four out of ten (360) respondents with Internet connectivity are interested in developing a homepage for their organizations, while 169 respondents, or 38%, are not interested in developing a homepage (Seymour, Beatty, and Insco 1998).
The Victims' Rights Discipline:
An Information Age for Victims and Service Providers
(This section is derived from the Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims text, published in 1998 by the National Center for Victims of Crime, with support from the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice.)
If the very core of America's victims' rights discipline (that is, what it takes to provide comprehensive, quality rights and services) had to be boiled down to one concept, or one word, it would quite possibly be this: Information.
Perhaps the greatest barrier over the past quarter century to the enforcement of victims' rights, and the empowerment of individual victims and witnesses, has been a systemic lack of information. At the genesis of this field, advocates struggled not only to interpret the various information needs of victims but also to create a nationwide system where information could be refined and disseminated. When the victims' rights movement strengthened in both numbers and sophistication, advocates focused on how to manage the vast amount of information that grew on a daily basis about rights, services, and related resources. As this discipline matures, the challenge remains to obtain, interpret, disseminate, and manage information that can assist victims and those who serve them in the most efficient, cost-effective, and accessible manner possible.
Consider the plight of a sexual assault victim 25 years ago . . . It would have been a rare occurrence for a rape victim to receive information about her rights from a responding officer. Referrals to supportive services were very limited. Guidance about how to apply for and obtain victim compensation was infrequently provided. Provision of the most basic information about her case was uncommon. Assistance in understanding the "maze" of the criminal or juvenile justice process would have been very limited, if available at all.
Flash forward to the millennium, to a very different environment: A responding officer would be likely to provide information about rights, services, compensation, and support. Information about the justice process would be available in both paper-based and electronic formats. The management of her case throughout the justice process in many jurisdictions would be simplified by electronic case files, with information shared "virtually" with security protections across both agencies and jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, information about the status of victim compensation claims could be electronically accessed. Information about confidential counseling and support groups would be available via the World Wide Web. In fact, today information about rape trauma, victims' rights, and avenues for activism abound on the Internet.
The difference between information then and information now reflects not only a growth in both quality and quantity but also a more refined approach to how information is identified, managed, shared, and made available to and about victims, and to those who serve them. Access to information today reflects an advantage that has been significantly advanced by technology.
Victim-related information can be divided into six key categories:
INFORMATION ABOUT CHOICES
Nobody chooses to be a victim of crime. As such, the key tenet of helping victims reconstruct their lives in the aftermath of a crime is to provide them with choices and options.
Victims today can readily access information about rights, services, statutes, victim compensation, civil remedies, and other important resources through the World Wide Web. Criminal and juvenile justice and allied professionals, as well as victim service providers, are often linked to each other so victims know whom to turn to for information and supportive services. Victims' choices about where to go and what to do in the aftermath of a crime are tremendously expanded by the volume and quality of information available, in both paper-based and electronic formats.
ACCESS TO INFORMATION
The advanced technology age has revolutionized the accessibility of information to victims of crime. No longer are boundaries and barriers created by one's geographical location, physical ability, culture, or language. Innovative applications of technology have changed the ways victims can identify and retrieve information and services. These innovations range from simple to complex:
When integrated management information systems within and among justice agencies incorporate victim information, both the quality of and access to such information are significantly improved. Lost paper files and misplaced case information become a thing of the past when victim-related case information is electronically attached, with appropriate security restrictions, to the electronic case file of the offender as it makes its way "virtually" through the justice process. Within victim serving agencies, basic networking in an office improves the veracity of victim-related data, as well as professionals' ability to access information when and where it is needed.
In addition, the need to interview and re-interview victims to obtain the same information for different victim service and justice agencies can be significantly decreased. Case information captured at "one source," such as law enforcement or prosecution, can be entered and consistently shared, eliminating the need for redundant data entry and multiple contacts with victims that are unnecessary and often traumatic.
The benefits of technology when applied to information and case management are substantial. Databases can be designed to capture not only vital information about individual victims but also helpful data about case histories, relationships with offenders, and prior receipt of services.
In addition, basic organizational management is enhanced by information systems that expand an agency's capability to design programs, secure funding, and strategically plan for the future. See the following examples:
INFORMATION ABOUT ADVOCACY
Many victims today seek opportunities to get involved in victim advocacy efforts and make a positive difference in others' lives through victim assistance, crime prevention, and public education activities. Visits to the Web sites of local, state, and national victim assistance organizations provide extensive information about opportunities for victim advocacy. "Electronic newsletters" contain timely resources related to current legislative and public outreach efforts. In addition, the increased use of "listservs" on the Internet can provide opportune information to multiple parties "at the press of a key."
Public awareness about and community involvement in victims' rights and services comprise a key goal of victim service and allied justice agencies. Many innovative applications (from computerized graphic design software packages, to basic electronic billboards, to the widespread use of the World Wide Web) have both complemented and simplified the presentation and transfer of information to interested parties about victims' rights and services. The speed of the transfer of information has resulted in community awareness and public education activities that are timely, matching the speed in which response and support from parties interested in victims' rights and services are needed.
Benefits of Innovative Technologies for Victim Service and
Allied Justice Agencies and Their Implications for Victim Services
The National Center for Victims of Crime identified five significant benefits for victim service and justice agencies that utilize innovative technologies along with six implications relevant to improving victims' rights and services (Seymour, Beatty, and Insco 1998).
While most innovative technologies that benefit victims require an initial investment of money, sometimes a considerable sum, myriad data point to their overall cost-effectiveness. In today's traditional victim service agency, much time that could be spent providing direct victim assistance and support is consumed by work directly attributable to paper-based systems. Technology can enhance overall agency operations and the provision of direct services to victims and reduce the duplicative efforts that are caused today by both the lack of technology and the lack of adequate management information systems.
Victim-related data are essential for a variety of purposes for both community- and system-based victim service agencies. Some examples follow:
For example, victim service providers in Wisconsin who receive VOCA funding can file their reports electronically to the Department of Justice.
Reporting requirements for victim serving agencies are driven by both internal need and external demand for information. Technology enhances an agency's ability to provide these data more quickly, efficiently, and accurately for both purposes.
IMPROVED CASE MANAGEMENT
Electronic databases enable victim service professionals to access information more quickly, enhancing both direct victim assistance and providing vital, and sometimes life saving, information to allied justice professionals. This is particularly true of victims' cases that involve either multiple victims/offenders or multiple case workers either within or among victim service agencies.
In addition, the security of victim-related information can be enhanced by technology. Specific information that can and should be shared with others can be made readily available to the proper authorities, while confidential data can be protected through a variety of measures such as security screens, personal identification numbers for victims, encryption, and "fire walls" on the World Wide Web.
ENHANCED PROGRAM EVALUATION
For victim-serving programs and agencies, program evaluation is essential for a variety of purposes such as follows:
The beauty of technology today is that user groups at the "front end" of the development of new applications can clearly identify data that are essential to program evaluation. These elements can be easily incorporated into software programs to provide valuable data when and where they are needed.
ELIMINATION OF REDUNDANT DATA ENTRY
It is not unusual for data about a victim or offender to be entered into information systems twenty-five or thirty times throughout the duration of a case. Consider the many "points of entry" for victim-related information, from law enforcement through courts and corrections, including data entered by both system- and community-based programs. Then consider the amount of human resources and time that must be dedicated to such redundant data entry.
Shared management information systems allow vital case information to be entered once, where it will (when appropriate) cross agency and/or jurisdictional lines in an electronic format.
For victim service agencies, data that are applicable to case management, direct service, program evaluation, and funding, among other considerations, can also be entered only once. Today, innovative software applications organize and manage these often complex data in ways that can eliminate repetitive data entry by multiple professionals.
IMPLICATIONS FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME
"Filling in the cracks." Victims have historically been subject to "cracks" in the justice system that sometimes appear to resemble the Grand Canyon. Vital information that is not shared among agencies or within a single agency can result in situations ranging from minor inconveniences to major tragedies.
Many innovative applications of technology today are designed specifically to "fill in the cracks" of a system and services that should be designed to protect victims. For example, victim case information can be electronically and confidentially attached to his or her offender's electronic case file for easy access and rapid retrieval. Furthermore, victim case information within one agency can be accessed by legitimate and authorized staff, even in the event that a victim's direct case worker is inaccessible at the time the information is needed.
The ability to create this "seamless web" of case information is perhaps one of the greatest contributions of technology to the victim's discipline today.
Enhanced outreach to victims. From the use of simple word processing programs that create automated merge letters, to basic graphic design programs that simplify the production of victim-related newsletters, to the wealth of information available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week on the World Wide Web, both the scope and quality of victim outreach has been vastly improved by technology. Access to information about victims' rights and services, statutory and case law, and opportunities for victims to become involved in proactive efforts designed to help others and even prevent crime--all abound as a direct result of the Information Age.
Caution must be taken, however, to ensure the veracity of the information now available to victims. Particularly on the World Wide Web, there are legitimate concerns about "quality control" because bad information is worse than no information at all. Quality control is a crucial area that merits continued assessment and action on the part of victims and those who serve them.
Emphasis on diversity. The ability to disseminate victim-related information in multiple languages and dialects has grown considerably through technological applications. Addressing diversity is beginning to resolve a historical challenge that has consistently hampered the victims' rights discipline because business was conducted primarily in the English language.
Many innovations have opened new and important doors to diverse populations:
These remarkable examples have made justice processes and related victims' rights and services more wholly accessible to populations diverse by geography, culture, and physical ability.
Increased victim satisfaction. Any time an application of technology enforces victims' rights or improves their access to greatly needed services, a possible outcome is increased victim satisfaction. A rich body of research correlates enforcement of victims' rights with increased victim satisfaction. Such correlations are greatly enhanced with the use of technology that broadens opportunities for input, information, notification, restitution, and protection, among other significant victims' rights.
Better enforcement of victims' rights. Many innovative technologies are designed to ensure enforcement of victims' rights:
These are just a few of the examples of how victims' rights are being enhanced through innovative applications of technology.
New opportunities for crime prevention. The abundance of information about offenders and victims, relationships between offenders and victims, trends in criminal activity, and innovative solutions to crime prevention and intervention provides new and significant opportunities to stop crime before it occurs. The increase in such data, along with the ability to manage information about complex data among individuals and activities in cases, have contributed to substantial improvements in prevention, early intervention, and reduction of criminal activity.
Barriers to the Systematic Use of Innovative Technologies
Through its national assessment of victim service programs' use of technology, an extensive literature review, and focused group discussions held at its 1998 technology symposium, the National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC) identified twenty-one potential barriers to the use of technology in victim services (Seymour, Beatty, and Insco 1998). The barriers can be summarized in five categories:
1. Planning and implementation.
2. The "learning curve" among victim service agencies and professionals.
3. Internal agency issues.
4. Sharing resources.
5. Victim-specific concerns.
The NCVC, however, is quick to surmise that what many view as "barriers" are simply "challenges" to be addressed when planning and implementing technological applications to enhance victims' rights and services.
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
Funding. Technology is often not cheap.
This important fact aside, victim service agencies must consider the costs of implementing innovative technologies and compare them to the benefits that will be received. Cost/benefit analyses usually support the initial investment in hardware and software (along with the concomitant costs of research and development necessary to launch the desired technology) with the expectation that in the long run, substantial savings in human and monetary resources will result.
Many governmental entities have "seen the light" in terms of applying new technologies to both justice- and victim-related processes. In the early stages of the technology revolution, investments in technology were considered high risk. As evaluation data consistently point to cost savings, streamlined operations and improved services, these risks are mitigated by the benefits.
Some state agencies that provide victim services have successfully requested appropriations for funding innovative technologies to enhance and streamline such services from their legislatures and executive branches. Key to these initiatives is a systematic evaluation of positive outcomes that result from this often substantial investment of taxpayers' dollars.
The U.S. Department of Justice has invested considerable dollars and human resources in technology that benefits victims of crime. Many program plans have designated dollars for technology applications or have emphasized the use of technology as a fundable factor for discretionary and demonstration dollars.
Converting from paper-based systems. There are still countless victim service agencies, both community- and system-based, that operate on a "paper basis." Case management information, client records and statistics, reporting systems, and information relevant to grant and other funding is maintained manually or, in some cases, using rudimentary technology such as basic word processors.
The transition from paper-based formats to electronic systems can be time-consuming, adding to staff and volunteer frustration and even resistance. In addition, electronic applications offer new approaches that, while significantly better than "the old way," require different formats and unfamiliar ways of organizing and accessing information.
Preserving the quality and accuracy of data as they become automated is another significant consideration. Quality control and measures to ensure accuracy of data are key factors when automating agency and/or service functions.
Potential agency/vendor liability. What happens when a technology designed to enforce a specific victims' right (such as notification, protection, or restitution) fails to accomplish its stated purpose? Who is responsible if a citizen is victimized or re-victimized as a direct result of the failure of technology, and/or the failure of professionals who are responsible for implementing such technology? Do individuals who are detrimentally affected by the failure of a technological application to adequately perform have a cause of action, against either the sponsoring agency or the private sector entity that helped develop it?
These questions require equally serious consideration in planning for new and innovative technologies. Liability may, indeed, be a significant barrier to the private sector's willingness to even enter into certain areas of research and development, fearing that the high costs of liability insurance and litigation are prohibitive.
Lack of victim/service provider involvement in planning and implementation. Many technological applications that are geared toward victim services and public safety fail to involve victims and those who serve them in the planning process: One-third of the technology submissions received by the NCVC project did not involve victims in the early stages of product development.
Who knows better what victims need, and what concerns them the most, than victims themselves? Victim-related technologies can benefit from input and guidance from victims and service providers throughout the research, development, planning, implementation and evaluation stages. Involvement of user groups and advisory entities can be very beneficial to governmental agencies, nonprofit organizations, and the private sector as they seek innovative approaches to using technology to benefit victims and witnesses of crime.
Lack of program evaluation. One of the key components in proving the success of new technologies (including cost effectiveness, victim satisfaction, savings of time and human resources, and overall efficiency) is program evaluation. The ability to show positive, measurable outcomes can lead to additional funding for and support of further technology applications.
As many states and other jurisdictions move toward performance-based evaluation measures, innovative technologies will be pressured to provide tangible means of measuring their success. Evaluation must be directly tied to planning efforts. Although costly, external evaluations by professional entities provide objective opinions of whether or not the application fulfills its proposed goals.
In addition, technologies that are service-oriented and/or provide information to users should make every effort to offer opportunities for user feedback. Client surveys and user groups are simple approaches to maintain ongoing, helpful communications with "customers" who utilize the technology.
Managing complex relationships among data elements. New technologies offer endless opportunities to manage data in ways never dreamt possible just a few years ago. Data that were accumulated and maintained in separate and distinct databases are today being organized and managed for a variety of purposes:
While the possibilities of managing these, and other, complex relationships are almost endless with today's technologies, they also pose challenges to planning and implementation efforts. Many agencies and professionals have historically operated "within the box" whose sides were held together by a lack of resources, technology, and knowledge. Innovative applications of data management systems require professionals today to think and go far "beyond the box," and create a vision where technology can be utilized to its full extent for not only victim assistance, but crime prevention, interdiction, and early intervention.
THE "LEARNING CURVE"
"Technophobia." Fear of the unknown is one of the greatest barriers that humans face in life. It is ironic that while technology today opens up vast new horizons of information and opportunities, at the same time it can be formidable and frightening. As one victim advocate noted, "'Technophobia' doesn't begin to describe my problem. 'Techno-terror' is more like it!"
Entities and professionals who offer technological solutions to problems facing victims today must be acutely aware of the fear of technology experienced by many victim service providers. All of the "barriers" described in this section add up to some very good reasons for some advocates' hesitance to embrace new technologies. Education for end users as well as potential users is essential to address the consummate "technophobia" that affects much of America's victims' rights discipline today. Continuing training and technical assistance in how to use specific applications, and recognize the benefits of their use, are key to overcoming this barrier. An awareness of service providers' limited time and resources must be taken into account, with clear and convincing evidence provided to them about how technology can make their jobs easier.
Lack of understanding of the nature of innovative technology. "You can't see the forest through the trees if you're standing at the foot of the ocean." Often people fail to understand the nature of and opportunities offered by new technologies because they lack adequate information to help them understand. The solution to this challenge goes far beyond simply educating people. It requires an understanding of users' most basic needs, job requirements, and expected outcomes. It demands the involvement of users in augmenting their human resources with technology in a partnership for progress. It needs an ongoing system of training, technical assistance, and user feedback that allows for two-way communication about problems and solutions. It means a commitment that involves learning and listening as a "two-way street."
Staff "buy-in." Victim service providers and allied professionals who are suspicious of new technologies will remain so until their suspicions and fears are either confirmed or denied. The best way to allay these predictable reactions from agency staff is to keep them informed and involved in how and why the new technology is being implemented, and how and why it can make their jobs easier. Such efforts should not occur after a technology is in place but in the initial planning stages and during implementation.
Some staff fear that their jobs will be replaced by technology. Still others fear an increase in workload due to the logical increases in information that can be managed through new applications. Both of these concerns must be directly addressed by providing concise and honest answers to the question "What's in it for me?"
INTERNAL AGENCY ISSUES
Lack of time. The opportunities offered by innovative technologies are often tempered, in the minds of some staff, by the time required to implement them. Technology and time management are affected by many factors:
Need for revisions and/or enhancements in policies, procedures, and/or laws. As America's justice system and allied professionals move into the Information Age, the journey requires a thorough assessment of agency policies and procedures, related provision of victim services, and state laws that govern the management of information. The differences between existing guidelines and legal requirements that were developed for paper-based systems, and those that are partially or fully electronic, can be substantial.
The solution requires an ongoing partnership between technology experts and those responsible for jurisdictions' laws and agencies policies. Mutual understanding and cooperation is needed on an ongoing basis to manage the change associated with technological innovations.
Today many management information systems (MIS) seek to build in mechanisms that automatically change database requirements in accordance with changes in laws and policies. For example, states' victim notification systems should be flexible enough to automatically effect MIS changes related to sentencing, sanctions for specific violations of supervision, or the addition of new victims' rights related to notification.
Quality of data. The old adage "garbage in, garbage out" takes on added meaning within the context of new technologies. The information in information systems is only as good as the original data from which it is derived, as well as the competency of staff who are inputting it into new electronic databases. Human error can have costly ramifications for victim-related technologies. Agencies must institute measures of quality assurance to maintain the integrity and accuracy of their electronic information, especially as it moves from a paper-based format into electronic systems.
Information overload. Is there such as thing as "information overload"? According to some victim service providers and allied professionals interviewed through the NCVC project, the answer is a resounding "yes" if the information is not managed well. As part of the planning process, people need to carefully determine the following:
The ability to amass tremendous amounts of data can easily lead one to gather information just "because one can." Unless outcomes of information management are decided early in the planning stage and throughout the implementation process, agencies may fall prey to "information overload."
Information sharing. Professionals and agencies who view "information as power" may have misgivings about sharing that power. In justice- and victim-related processes, however, information sharing is vital to case management, criminal tracking, trending, and other critical planning and management issues. There are countless stories of victims who have "fallen through the cracks of the justice system" because case information was neither shared, nor passed on to the appropriate entity.
The sharing of information requires safeguards to make sure the information is utilized in lawful and appropriate manners. Concerns about victim and offender confidentiality can actually be addressed better with, rather than without, technology, as current applications offer considerable security protections.
However, fears of sharing information are very real and, as such, should be validated and addressed throughout any technology implementation.
Systems integration. It appears that when victim service and justice agencies began automating their processes over the past decade, few discussions were held among professionals regarding the hardware and software specifications that might eventually be integrated, across both agency and jurisdictional lines. The result is a wide variety of platforms and applications that, today, require significant interfaces to "speak" to each other.
In addition, many agencies today seek to upgrade somewhat archaic systems, rather than replace them with newer, faster systems with greater capabilities. While these decisions are cost-effective in the short run, it is questionable as to their efficacy in the future.
Systems integration is also challenged by the unwillingness of some agencies to share specific information (this issue is addressed below). However, there are few systems that, with today's advanced technology, cannot be integrated with seemingly disparate systems.
Inter-agency and inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Different agencies and jurisdictions often operate under different policies, procedures, and laws. Those who apply innovative technologies to benefit victims must research and understand the variances that will affect
In many jurisdictions, cross-agency and cross-jurisdictional task forces define not only user requirements for new technologies, but also the policies and laws under which they must operate. For some systems, flexibility is necessary to meet the various and ever-changing mandates required by agency policy and state or federal law.
Agreements must also be developed that determine who is responsible for some of the new and exciting outcomes made possible by technology. For example, if an offender under community supervision that includes satellite monitoring offends in a jurisdiction 250 miles away from his probation officer, who is responsible for his apprehension? Who is responsible for providing immediate, direct victim assistance? Are costs of both shared, or solely the responsibility of the jurisdiction in which the offense occurred? These and other questions are typical of the many concerns related to inter-agency and inter-jurisdictional cooperation.
Public/private partnerships. The inner workings of private industry can, at times, be quite different from those of governmental or nonprofit agencies. Private firms are concerned about profits, and public sector agencies are concerned about saving money. While these differences are by no means insurmountable, they can pose significant challenges to the implementation of new technologies.
Joint ventures require joint risks, as well as mutual understanding of expectations and outcomes. Some vendors feel that the public sector doesn't understand or appreciate the high costs of research and development necessary to launch a new technology. On the other hand, some professionals in the public sector feel that vendors need to gain a better understanding of the constraints they face in terms of time, human resources, and funding.
Accessibility to technological applications. The reality in 1999 is that the "Information Superhighway" is still "the road less traveled" for many victims and service providers due solely to the cost of a basic personal computer, modem, and Internet connection. The challenge posed by a lack of access to technology is as serious a concern as the barriers posed by victims who speak a language other than English or live in rural/remote communities. Similarly, justice and victim service agencies in jurisdictions that face budget deficits are likely to face deficits in access to technology and, as a result, access to information. While revisions in U.S. Department of Justice policies and state laws related to funding are beginning to change this disparity, an imbalance in access still exists.
Security of information. Victim confidentiality is a basic tenet of victim services. Valid fears about technology are most often directly related to the security of victim information, case files, and other data. The private sector has responded with innovative applications that utilize encryption, personal identification numbers, security screens that limit access, and "fire walls" on the World Wide Web. Yet these approaches must be augmented by comprehensive education of victim service providers and allied justice professionals who remain wary of anything that doesn't equate to a confidential file in a locked file cabinet in a secure room.
The need to maintain "the human touch." While technology can streamline and better organize the delivery of both services and information, it can never replace "the human touch." No matter how well applied, technology is still impersonal to many victims and advocates. A human voice or personal meeting provides comfort; a computer does not. As such, technological advances should be considered only a partial solution to meeting victims' needs. With careful planning and consideration, technology applications can (and in many cases, should) be augmented by "the human touch" such as follows:
Outreach to victims about the benefits of new technologies. Just as crime victims are beginning to be viewed as "clients" or "customers" of the justice system, they must be perceived as such by technology firms and those agencies who purchase their services. The success of technologies that benefit victims of crime will depend significantly on victim satisfaction with, and acceptance of, these new innovations.
Outreach can occur on several fronts:
The more knowledge victims and advocates have about technologies that can help them, the more likely they are to support efforts related to planning, implementation, and funding of these technologies.
The "Information Superhighway"
(This section is derived from the "Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims" text, published in 1998 by the National Center for Victims of Crime, with support from the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice.)
APPLICATIONS TO CRIME VICTIMS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS
The "Information Superhighway" has radically changed communications throughout the world. The speed and scope of human interactions have expanded considerably. Access to information through the World Wide Web today crosses jurisdictional, geographical, cultural and linguistic lines. This remarkable progress holds great implications for victims of crime and those who serve them.
This section provides a basic overview of the World Wide Web and its applications to victims, service providers, and allied justice professionals.
CONFIDENTIALITY AND TECHNOLOGY
The issue of victim confidentiality encompasses three primary issues:
Encryption is the primary technology used to protect information as it is communicated across the Internet. This prevents victim-related or other confidential information from being observed and decoded as it moves across the public Internet. Encryption, which is built into most popular browsers, prevents listening by unauthorized persons. The need for encryption is substantially diminished by use of a private Intranet or Extranet.
Data stored at a particular site needs to be protected. This is typically done by using passwords to authenticate user privileges. Privileges to view or to edit information within an application on the Internet is usually multilayered. This means that different privileges attach to different users depending on their authority. For example, a victim might only be allowed to view his or her own information, while a counselor or other official might need to access his or her entire caseload. Likewise, the ability to edit the information might be limited based on the authorization granted to the user.
"Firewalls" also prevent access from outside sources into secure servers through the Internet. This is required when organizations place their Local Area Networks, and therefore their information and computers, on the Internet.
Authentication of users and servers is important so that information is not transferred to organizations pretending to be another site. The technology that accomplishes this feat is called public/private keys. The use of public/private keys assures users that they are transferring information to the intended site. For example, the victim, who is preparing to share personal information with a prosecutor's site can be reassured that the site is authenticated as the site it purports to be. Likewise, a victim can be assured that on the prosecutor's site, the user has been verified as the person he/she purports to be.
CONFIDENTIALITY OF VICTIM ADDRESSES AND OTHER CONTACT INFORMATION
A review of Internet resources reveals that there are multiple sources for personal information, including addresses and telephone numbers, about most individuals, including victims. There is little, if anything, that can be done about dissemination of this information. This makes it all that much more important to maintain security and confidentiality of court-related data on the Internet involving victims, as discussed above.
The Internet is generally described as the "network of networks." The public Internet links hundreds of millions of computers into one global network. The Internet is made possible by a set of network protocols used worldwide. This standard makes many applications possible, including e-mail, the World Wide Web, Telnet, News Groups, FTP (File Transport Protocol), chat rooms, listservs, video viewers, audio players, database applications, and a limitless number of small applications called applets. The World Wide Web, and the many other innovations it has inspired, have propelled the Internet to unequaled prominence not just in computer technology, but also in modern life.
Some uses of the Internet that are applicable to victims and service providers might include the following:
Unfortunately this popularity creates problems of its own. The very ubiquity of the Internet exposes public Web sites to attack by hackers. This risk, in addition to the fact that much of the information an organization needs to share internally is not appropriate for the public Internet, substantiates the need for private networks that use the power of the Internet protocols.
Many organizations have used the same powerful and simple methods of the Internet to create their own private networks, called Intranets. These networks are used by organizations to share information and applications among their members such as training manuals and case files. Intranets look just like the Internet except that they are private to the organization. They can be used to link multiple divisions or departments of an organization together. For example, a state-level correctional agency might use an Intranet to share information about victims, or offender release dates. Typically, access to an Intranet network through the Internet is severely restricted with the use of a firewall. A firewall allows only one way access, namely out to the Internet, not into the Intranet.
Extranets are private networks shared by multiple organizations. An Extranet uses the same protocols and technology as the Internet. It simply restricts the network to certain organizations. A possible use of the Extranet might be to link courts, law enforcement, and prosecutor organizations in order to share information about victims or court notifications.
Web Browsers have clearly become the dominant application of the Internet. Not only are they used to read HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) pages, but they have also become vehicles for virtually every other stand-alone application. The two dominant browsers (with over 90 percent of the market), Netscape's Communicator and Microsoft's Explorer, are cases in point. Each browser now has incorporated e-mail, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), chat facilities, video viewers, audio players, and video conference/white board software. Perhaps more important, in the long run, both browsers have the facility to incorporate multiple applications into their framework using the programming language called Java.
DATABASE AND OTHER APPLICATIONS ON THE WEB
The greatest promise of the Internet/Intranet/Extranet may be the ability to allow universal access to databases and other applications through simple Web browsers. The advantages of this model are enormous. In the first instance, such a model significantly reduces the cost and difficulty of application deployment. It permits the use of very inexpensive computers by users. It also allows for very facile and painless upgrades of the software from a single central point. The promise of these now wide-ranging technologies might permit the seamless and appropriate sharing of information among law enforcement, prosecution, courts, corrections, victim service agencies and the general public.
HTML TO DATABASE SCRIPTING
The lowest common denominator of the Web is HTML, a simple scripting lanuage that has made the Web as we know it today possible. A small group of firms have extended the use of HTML by using it as a script that will talk to databases. The power of these simple tools can be substantial. For example, it might securely permit victims to query and submit information to a prosecutor case tracking database from the Internet. These tools are also simple to use. They do, however, experience limitations as a result of the constraints of HTML.
Major attention and effort have been directed to the creation of miniature applications that load through Web browsers to process data. The primary tool for this effort is the object-oriented language called Java. The promise of Java is that inexpensive computers will be able to process data using small programs instead of the expensive desktop software tools now used. DirectX, a product of software giant Microsoft, has a similar function. In addition to significantly lowering unit costs, a major advantage of Java or DirectX is that it would greatly simplify the deployment of Internet/Intranet/Extranet solutions. In fact, software updates would be accomplished each time a user visited the site. This would allow sophisticated and ubiquitous access to the information behind the Java application. For example, a victim or service provider, using a Web browser, might view a spreadsheet (a Java applet) that shows restitution payments.
The most recent enhancement to HTML is a scripting language called XML. The first attributes of this new Web protocol are just beginning to emerge from international standards bodies. XML will significantly extend the power of the World Wide Web. It is said that XML will give Java the data to work. It will permit Web pages to contain data that look the same to multiple computer programs regardless of their location, platform, or origin. For example, a case file might originate in a police department computer, be submitted to a prosecutor's database, and continue to a court management system without format change.
In effect, XML holds the prospect of allowing disparate computer systems in the criminal and juvenile justice systems to use the same information entered once through a Web browser. It is a major part of the puzzle allowing a truly integrated justice tracking and notification system, easily accessible to all with appropriate authority.
RULES NECESSARY FOR THE ACCOMMODATION OF TECHNOLOGY
Courts rule changes are necessary for the full integration of technology into the court system. Typically, rule changes are necessary to permit the automated filing of court documents or even the use of faxed documents for purposes such as automated submission for search warrants. Rule changes can be effected though local court rule changes or state-wide rule changes. Statewide rules are typically superior to local rules.
Clear policies are required by justice agencies to establish which types of victim-related information will and will not be released and/or shared. Although formulation of these policies does not generally appear to require legislative intervention, statutes have been used in specific instances.
CASE TRACKING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Effective victim notification, restitution, and victim impact information tools require a case tracking information system as a base for their operation. Whether it is a local, state, or nationwide system, the first step is to maintain the case tracking information. It is this case tracking information that often drives victim information services.
Unfortunately, the case information required by victims usually comes from different entities within the criminal or juvenile justice system. Inevitably these organizations store and access important victim information in different ways. Because there are so few integrated justice automation systems, victim information must be entered separately by hand and cannot be exported directly from different automated systems. Technology allowing the integration of data, while maintaining separate systems in different agencies, is rapidly emerging (see the discussion of XML above).
SECURE NEWS SERVER
The Secure News Server is computer software that lets users create secure, private discussion groups for access over the Internet/Intranet/Extranet.
For example, the National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC) has used its Secure News Server to develop communities of interest around victim-related issues and services on the Internet. NCVC's secure news server allows victim advocates to discuss issues relevant to victims in a secured virtual environment. Researchers and policy makers can review new legislation and regulations with a national, regional, or local interest group.
The Secure News Server improves collaboration and communication within workgroups, across agencies, and between/among remote sites around the country. These electronic discussion groups enable people to participate in a remote dialogue by posting and reading messages about topics of interest. Discussion groups support multiple conversations, or "threads," on a given subject, displaying postings in the context of the prior discussion. This allows a reader to follow an entire discussion from its inception, though they may also join well after the discussion has started.
E-mail on the Internet makes ubiquitous electronic messaging possible. The popularity of Internet e-mail is second in popularity and functionality only to World Wide Web services. Anyone who has an e-mail account on the Internet can correspond and transfer computer files to anyone else on the Internet. Connection to the Internet requires nothing more than a telephone, modem, and computer. Standard messaging packages allow users to exchange files by attaching them to e-mail. This ability, in combination with the universal connectivity of e-mail, permits collaboration among users anywhere on the Internet.
The Listserv is a computer program that automates the broadcast of e-mail across the Internet. Typically it is used by a discussion group whose members wish to share e-mail with everyone else in the group. A listserv is generally an informal ad hoc type of discussion group. As participation increases, it is often replaced by a News Group.
ANONYMOUS E-MAIL SERVERS
Sometimes it is important for e-mail users to restrict knowledge about their identity. Anonymous e-mail Servers permit users to forward e-mail through their special server, which then removes any indication of the originator's identity. Such a server can benefit crime victims who need information or support, but wish to remain anonymous. By the use of an anonymous e-mail server, crime victims might very candidly share personal information across the Internet with no fear that their privacy will be invaded.
FTP (FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL)
FTP is a facility of the Internet that allows users to download computer files from other sites. It is often used to transfer software or recent updates to software. FTP abilities have been largely incorporated into Web browsers, thereby making the necessity of separate FTP applications largely unnecessary.
The Telnet utility allows Internet users to log on to remote computers and utilize them as though they were located locally. Although usually restricted by security considerations, Telnet allows remote users to utilize the information from large databases as though it were located on their desktop. The use of Telnet is largely restricted to advanced Internet users.
ICHAT AND CHAT ROOMS
Ichat and chat rooms are Internet facilities that allow individuals to participate in online, real-time computer conversations. As one user types messages, they can be viewed and responded to by others on the channel. Users can go offline publicly and restrict their conversations to only two participants.
These facilities can be used by victims seeking online counseling or help from a virtual support group. Like many other utilities, these two facilities have been largely incorporated into Web browsers.
Accessing Information: Office for Victims of Crime Resource
(The following information was extracted from the 1999 National Crime Victims' Rights Week Resource Guide, published in 1999 by the Victims Assistance Legal Organization, Inc. (VALOR), with grant support from the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice.)
VICTIMS' RESOURCES IN THE INFORMATION AGE
Established in accordance with recommendations of the 1982 President's Task Force on Victims of Crime, the U.S. Department of Justice's Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) serves as the chief advocate for our nation's crime victims, promoting fundamental rights and comprehensive services for victims of crime throughout the United States. OVC's information clearinghouse, the Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center (OVCRC), a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), is on the forefront of these new information technologies, and is aggressively using them. The NCJRS also provides a catalog of publications and videotapes to deliver timely and relevant information to the victim-serving community. Since coming "online" in 1994, NCJRS and OVCRC have developed a variety of online services to benefit the victim assistance professional: World Wide Web page; Justice Information (JUSTINFO) Electronic Newsletter; and E-Mail Information and Help Line. Together with other electronic access features, including telephone and online document ordering and fax-on-demand, NCJRS and OVCRC have truly made a "quantum leap" forward in fulfilling their mission of "bringing the right information to the right people . . . right now."
ACCESSING NCJRS AND OVCRC ONLINE
NCJRS Online can be accessed in the following ways:
NCJRS World Wide Web homepage. The homepage provides NCJRS information as well as links to other criminal justice resources from around the world. The NCJRS Web page provides information about NCJRS and OJP agencies; grant-funding opportunities; full-text publications; key-word searching of NCJRS publications; access to the NCJRS Abstracts Database; the current NCJRS Catalog; and a topical index. The address for the NCJRS Homepage is <http://www.ncjrs.gov>.
Justice Information (JUSTINFO) electronic newsletter. This free, online newsletter is distributed to your Internet e-mail address on the first and fifteenth of each month. JUSTINFO contains information concerning a wide variety of subjects, including news from all Office of Justice Programs (OJP) agencies and the Office of National Drug Control Policy; criminal justice resources on the Internet; criminal justice funding and program information; and announcements about new NCJRS products and services. To subscribe, send an e-mail to <email@example.com> with the message: subscribe justinfo your name.
E-Mail: information and help. Users requiring technical assistance or having specific questions on criminal and juvenile justice topics can send an e-mail to <firstname.lastname@example.org>. To place an order for publications, users may send an e-mail to <email@example.com>.
Partnerships Against Violence Network (PAVNET). PAVNET Online is a searchable database containing information about hundreds of promising programs and resources, providing users with key contacts; program types; target populations; location; project start-up date; evaluation information; annual budget; sources of funding; and program description. Users may go directly to the site at <www.pavnet.org>.
OTHER NCJRS ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SERVICES
Fax-on-demand. NCJRS has established a "fax-on-demand" service which allows the user to obtain copies of selected NCJRS documents directly through their own fax machine, using a toll-free telephone number. To access the fax-on-demand menu, simply call 800-851-3420, and follow the prompts.
CD-ROM and online access to the Abstracts Database. Users with CD-ROM capability can also obtain the NCJRS Abstracts Database on CD-ROM. This disc features citations and abstracts of more than 140,000 criminal justice books, research reports, journal articles, government documents, program descriptions, program evaluations, and training manuals contained in the NCJRS Research and Information Center library collection. The disc also contains search software that supports retrieval using any combination of words to search individual fields or all fields globally. The disc can be searched using "free text" methods, or in combination with the National Criminal Justice Thesaurus. In addition, the NCJRS Abstracts Database is available on the NCJRS Homepage at <http://www.ncjrs.gov/database.
htm>. Details are available by calling NCJRS at 800-851-3420.
VICTIM-RELATED INTERNET SITES
Through the continued development of the Internet, especially the World Wide Web, crime victims and victim service providers have witnessed a remarkable growth in the amount of information available to them. Now, victim-serving agencies and advocacy organizations have the ability to reach around the corner or around the world with information about new issues, services, and promising practices designed to improve the welfare of victims of all types of crime. In an effort to present the most comprehensive and timely information available through this vast medium, the Office for Victims of Crime has substantially revised its World Wide Web homepage. OVC encourages crime victims and victim service providers alike to visit this comprehensive resource, located at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/>.
Many other agencies and organizations are now providing victim-related information through the World Wide Web. At the end of this chapter is a list of sites on the Web that contain information on selected crime victimization topics. Please note that this list is intended only to provide a sample of available resources and does not constitute an endorsement of opinions, resources, or statements made therein.
(The following promising practices were identified through the "Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Victims" Project sponsored by the National Center for Victims of Crime. Their inclusion in this text does not construe an endorsement.)
- Paper-pencil test booklet format.
- On the computer screen/monitor.
- Optical scanner.
- Human (audio) voice.
Client risk is determined for each of the six DVI scales independently based on the client's pattern of responding. It has a built-in proprietary database that facilitates ongoing database research and test program summary reports. Created by Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., the DVI is utilized by courts, corrections, and community-based programs in hundreds of jurisdictions across the United States.
The RCRO and other components of the Trial Court information systems are made available to the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) via electronic link. A strong relationship between the Massachusetts Trial Court and CJIS ensures that Trial Court data are made available twenty-four hours a day to state and local law enforcement for arrest and investigation purposes. The Registry, designed to support domestic violence prevention and enforcement activities, has also supported the development of many new practices. New domestic violence programs for offender monitoring and victim assistance have been developed in many local probation offices.
While initially created for criminal justice purposes, this statewide system incorporates the Superior, District, Boston Municipal, and Family Court Departments. In addition to Trial Court utilization, the RCRO is used by jails, houses of correction (prisons), and parole authorities to ensure that victim safety is maintained during custody and by human and social service agencies for use in child custody, foster care placement, and adoption determinations.
The program provides judges and judicial educators with an innovative and accessible learning tool that can be used individually or with other judges as an integral part of continuing education courses.
The telemedicine program is in daily use by satellite programs (High Desert Hospital and Olive View Medical Center in California; Alaska; and various Indian reservations). It is currently being expanded throughout Los Angeles County for use as peer review and continuing medical education. This program is used by centers with sophisticated technology or by programs that simply rely on 35mm or digital photography. The CVC/VIP is one of the largest comprehensive child abuse centers in the United States. The major focus of this program is to rely on a multidisciplinary team approach to intervene for children and families where child abuse has been identified as a problem. The CVC was the pioneer in developing the technology for the photo documentation of trauma associated with sexual assault, which is currently the standard of care accepted throughout the world.
- Continuous offender monitoring capability that permits automated real-time violation notification for offenders and advanced warning for victims (and potential victims) of crime. This comprehensive system is comprised of offender equipment, agency equipment, victim equipment, and a central data system. It has centralized authority at the a data center where the offender's rules of release and off-limit areas are defined and stored. The system has autonomous execution because the offender's PTD is loaded with the rules of release and off-limit areas, and will notify both the offender and the data center when the offender violates these rules.
Victims of crime can be provided with a notification interface using a pager and/or phone (cellular or land line). The agency is provided with a remote computer workstation interface for map displays, rules, administration, and reports. Law enforcement can also be provided with a remote computer workstation interface to perform crime scene correlation regarding offenders on the system.
- Victim information and notification technology that utilizes a centralized call center with both live operators and automated interactive voice prompts to provide crime victims and other designated groups with twenty-four hours a day access to select offender information via the telephone. Callers use basic offender information such as a name, case or booking number to procure accurate inmate and case data, and then register using a self-selected PIN number to receive an automated telephone notification in the event that the status changes. A computer interface is established between the call center and on-site agencies such as the local jail, court, district attorney's office, or corrections/parole agency. Examples of information that can be monitored through such technology include custody status, court information, charge information, etc.
- An artificial intuition system that assists case evaluators in making high-stakes predictions of violence. This is a case management tool that brings expert opinion and research results to the management of situations that may escalate to violence. It asks questions and evaluates factors about a given case, and prompts the user to select from a predetermined range of answers.
Different systems can be used for different predictive challenges, including situations involving: predicting which domestic violence situations are most likely to escalate to homicide; screening of threats to senior officials (governors, members of Congress, mayors, agency heads, etc.) as well as threats to federal judges and prosecutors; evaluation of cases of possible violence in the workplace; determination of which abortion clinics are most likely to be targeted for violence; and determination of which cases of child abuse are most likely to escalate or reach a lethal level. Additionally, systems are being developed to help determine the "provability" of domestic violence cases so that prosecutors can better screen and manage the cases that are brought to them for review.
Innovative Technologies and
the Information Age Self-Examination
2. Describe two barriers to the development or use of technologies that could benefit victims of crime and victim service providers.
3. What is the World Wide Web?
4. Describe one program or service available electronically on the Internet from the U.S. Department of Justice.
5. Describe a promising practice utilizing innovative technologies to benefit victims (either one highlighted in this chapter or one used by your agency or in your community).
Chapter 20 References
Insco, M. June 1995. Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims, grant proposal to the Office for Victims of Crime. Arlington, VA: National Center for Victims of Crime.
Seymour, A. June 1995. Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims, grant proposal to the Office for Victims of Crime. Arlington, VA: National Center for Victims of Crime.
Seymour, A., D. Beatty, and M. Insco. 1998. Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims, Chapter 2. Arlington, VA: National Center for Victims of Crime.
Victims Assistance Legal Organization, Inc. (VALOR). 1999. National Crime Victims' Rights Week Resource Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime.
Chapter 20 Additional Resources
|Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)||http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/|
|Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)||http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov|
|Community-Oriented Police Office (COPS)||http://www.justice.gov/cops/|
|Dept. of Health and Human Services Grantsnet||http://www.os.dhhs.gov/progorg/grantsnet/index.html|
|Department of Justice||http://www.justice.gov/|
|Department of the Solicitor General||http://www.gov.nb.ca/solgen/index.htm|
|FBI Uniform Crime Reports - Statistical Data||http://www.lib.virginia.edu/socsci/crime|
|Federal Bureau of Prisons||http://www.bop.gov|
|Federal Judicial Center||http://www.fjc.gov/|
|Government Information Online, GovBot||http://bacchus.fedworld.gov/Search_Online.html|
|National Archive of Criminal Justice Data||http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/home.html|
|National Domestic Violence Hotline||http://www.justice.gov/vawo/newhotline.htm|
|NCJRS Justice Information Center||http://www.ncjrs.gov|
|National Institute of Corrections (NIC)||http://www.bop.gov/nicpg/nic.html|
|National Institute of Justice (NIJ)||http://www.ncjrs.gov/nijhome.htm|
|Office of Justice Programs (OJP)||http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov|
|Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention||http://www.ncjrs.gov/ojjdp/|
|Office for Victims of Crime (OVC)||http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/|
|Office of National Drug Control Policy Information Clearinghouse||http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov|
|Partnership Against Violence Network (PAVNET)||http://www.pavnet.org|
|THOMAS: Federal Legislation||http://thomas.loc.gov|
|U.S. Department of Education - Campus Security and Safety||http://www.ed.gov/offices/OPE/index.html|
|U.S. Parole Commission||http://www.justice.gov/uspc/parole.htm|
|Violence Against Women's Office (VAWO)||http://www.justice.gov/vawo/index.html|
|Violence Against Women Grant Office (VAWGO)||http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/vawgo/|
NATIONAL VICTIM-RELATED ORGANIZATIONS
|American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law||http://www.abanet.org/child/|
|American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children||http://child.cornell.edu/APSAC/apsac.home.html|
|Child Abuse Prevention Network||http://child.cornell.edu|
|Concerns of Police Survivors (COPS)||http://www.nationalcops.org|
|Family Violence Prevention Fund||http://www.fvpf.org/index.html|
|Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)||http://www.madd.org|
|National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC)||http://www.missingkids.org/index.html|
|National Center for Victims of Crime (formerly National Victim Center)||http://www.ncvc.org|
|National Center on Elder Abuse||http://www.elderabusecenter.org/|
|National Children's Alliance||http://www.nncac.org|
|National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information||http://www.calib.com/nccanch|
|National Coalition Against Domestic Violence||http://www.webmerchants.com/ncadv/default.htm|
|National Coalition Against Sexual Assault (NCASA)||http://www.ncasa.org|
|National Court Appointed Special Advocates Association||http://www.casanet.org|
|National Fraud Information Center||http://www.fraud.org|
|National Insurance Crime Bureau||http://www.nicb.org|
|National Children's Alliance||http://www.nncac.org/|
|National Victims Constitutional Amendment Network (NVCAN)||http://www.nvcan.org|
|National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA)||http://www.try-nova.org|
|National Victim Assistance Academy (OVC)||http://www.ovc.gov/ovc/assist/vaa.htm|
|National Victim Assistance Academy (VALOR)||http://www.nvaa.org|
|Neighbors Who Care||http://www.neighborswhocare.org|
|Parents of Murdered Children (POMC)||http://www.pomc.com|
|Safe Campuses Now||http://www.uga.edu/~safe-campus/|
|Security on Campus||http://www.soconline.org/|
|Victims' Assistance Legal Organization (VALOR)||http://www.valor-national.org|
NATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE- AND PUBLIC POLICY-RELATED ASSOCIATIONS
|American Correctional Association (ACA)||http://www.corrections.com/aca|
|American Correctional Health Services Association||http://www.corrections.com/achsa/|
|American Jail Association (AJA)||http://www.corrections.com/aja|
|American Probation and Parole Association (APPA)||http://www.appa-net.org|
|Center for Sex Offender Management||http://sunsite.unc.edu/icea|
|Correctional Education Association Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators||http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/|
|Council of State Governments (CSG)||http://www.csg.org|
|Higher Education Center Against Violence and Abuse||http://www.umn.edu/mincava/|
|National Association of Counties (NACo)||http://www.naco.org|
|National Center for State Courts (NSSC)||http://www.ncsc.dni.us|
|National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)||http://www.ncsl.org|
|National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics||http://www.search.org|
|National Council on Crime and Delinquency||http://solar.rtd.utk.edu/ccsi/csusa/crime/crimedel.html|
|National Council of Juvenile and Family||http://www.ncjfcj.unr.edu/|
|Court Judges National Criminal Justice Association (NCJA)||http://www.sso.org/ncja/|
|National Governors Association||http://www.nga.org/|
|National Judicial College||http://www.judges.org|
|National Indian Justice Center||http://www.nijc.indian.com/|
|National Sheriffs Association||http://www.sheriffs.org/|
|Office of Correctional Education||http://www.ed.gov/offices/OVAE/OCE/|
|Southern Poverty Law Center||http://splcenter.org|
STATE-LEVEL VICTIM ASSISTANCE AGENCIES
|Arizona Department of Public Safety||http://www.state.az.us/dps/voca/|
|California Criminal Justice Planning||http://www.ocjp.ca.gov|
|Colorado Division of Criminal Justice||http://cdpsweb.state.co.us/ovp/ovp.htm|
|Delaware Criminal Justice Council||http://www.state.de.us/cjc/index.html|
|Florida Attorney General's Office - Crime Victims Services||http://legal.firn.edu/victims/index.html|
|llinois Criminal Justice Information Agency||http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/|
|Iowa Department of Justice||http://www.state.ia.us/government/ag/cva.html|
|Kansas Attorney Generals Office||http://www.washlaw.edu/|
|Kentucky Attorney General's Victims' Advocacy Offfice||http://www.law.state.ky.us/victims/Default.htm|
|Maryland Office of the Attorney General||http://www.oag.state.md.us/Victim/rights.htm|
|Massachusetts Attorney Generals Office||http://www.state.ma.us/ag/|
|Minnesota Dept. of Public Safety Crime||http://184.108.40.206/cvshome.html|
|Victim Services [Program forms]||http://www.ot.state.mn.us/ot_files/content/bud_pol/2000-01/cvsc.pdf|
|Missouri Department of Public Safety||http://www.dps.state.mo.us/dps/programs/grants.htm|
|New Hampshire Attorney Generals Office||http://www.state.nh.us/nhdoj/|
|New Mexico Crime Victims Reparations Commission||http://www.state.nm.us/cvrc/|
|New York Attorney Generals Office||http://www.oag.state.ny.us/crime/crime.html|
|Ohio Attorney General's Office Crime Victim Services||http://www.ag.ohio.gov/crimevic/cvassist.htm|
|Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency||http://www.pccd.state.pa.us/|
|South Carolina Ombudsman||http://www.netside.com/~ae4fa/ombtext.htm|
|Wisconsin Office of Crime Victim Services||http://www.doj.state.wi.us/cvs/|
STATE CRIME VICTIM COMPENSATION PROGRAMS
|Natl Assoc. of Crime Victim Compensation Program Directory||http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/help/compdir|
|Arizona Department of Public Safety||http://www.state.az.us/dps/voca/compensa.htm|
|Arkansas Attorney General's Office Outreach Division||http://www.ag.state.ar.us|
|California Board of Control||http://www.boc.cahwnet.gov/Victims.htm|
|Colorado Div. of Pubic Safety Office of Victims Programs||http://cdpsweb.state.co.us/ovp/ovp.htm|
|Florida Attorney General's Office - Crime Victims Services||http://legal.firn.edu/victims/compensation.html|
|Illinois Attorney General's Office||http://www.acsp.uic.edu/~ag/victim/vcva.htm|
|Idaho Industrial Commission||http://www.state.id.us/iic/Crimevictims.htm|
|Iowa Dept. of Justice Crime Victim Assistance Division||http://www.state.ia.us/government/ag/cvcform.htm|
|Kansas Attorney General's Office||http://www.washlaw.edu|
|Kentucky Cabinet for Public Protection and Regulation||http://www.state.ky.us/agencies/ppc/|
|Massachusetts Attorney General's Office||http://www.state.ma.us/ag/|
|Minnesota Crime Victims Reparations||http://220.127.116.11/crimevic/crimevic.html|
|Mississippi Crime Victim Compensation Program||http://www.dfa.state.ms.us/cvcompx.html|
|Missouri Department of Labor and Industry Relations||http://www.dolir.state.mo.us/wc/dolir6f.htm|
|New Hampshire Victim's Assistance Commission||http://www.state.nh.us/nhdoj/victimwitness/vw.html|
|New Jersey Victims of Crime Compensation Board||http://www.state.nj.us/victims/|
|[Application; PDF format]||http://www.state.nj.us/victims/vccbappl.pdf|
|New Mexico Crime Victims Reparations||http://www.state.nm.us/cvrc/|
|Commission [Application; PDF format]||http://www.state.nm.us/cvrc/brochure.pdf|
|New York Crime Victims Board||http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/ils/cvb1.html|
|North Carolina Victim and Justice Services||http://www.nccrimecontrol.org/vjs/|
|Ohio Attorney General's Office Crime Victim Services||http://www.ag.state.oh.us/crimevic/cvcomps.htm|
|Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency||http://www.pccd.state.pa.us/|
|Rhode Island Treasury||http://www.state.ri.us/treas/vc_info.htm|
|South Carolina Office of Victim Assistance||http://www.state.sc.us/governor|
|Tennessee Claims Administration Division||http://www.treasury.state.tn.us/injury.htm|
|Utah Office of Crime Victims Reparations||http://www.justice.state.ut.us/|
|Texas Office of Attorney General||http://www.oag.state.tx.us/victims/victims.htm|
|Wisconsin Crime Victim Rights (Unofficial)||http://www.doj.state.wi.us/cvs/|
|Washington State Department of Labor and Industries||http://www.wa.gov/lni/workcomp/crime.htm|
FEDERAL/STATE CORRECTIONS, VICTIM SERVICE UNITS, SEX OFFENDER REGISTRIES, ETC.
|Alaska Sex Offender Registry||http://www.dps.state.ak.us/Sorcr/Index.asp|
|California Youth Authority, Prevention and Victim Services||http://www.cya.ca.gov|
|Florida Department of Law Enforcement||http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/index.asp|
|[links to Sex Predator Locator and Missing Children] Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Information||http://www.bop.gov/inmate.html|
|Florida Dept. of Corrections Victim Assistance Page||http://www.dc.state.fl.us/|
|Illinois Department of Corrections Victim Services Unit||http://www.idoc.state.il.us/VictimServ.htm|
|Indiana Sex Offender Registry||http://www.ai.org/cji/index.html|
|Maine Department of Corrections Victim Services||http://www.state.me.us/ag/victim.htm|
|Maryland Department of Corrections Victim Notification Program||http://www.dpscs.state.md.us/doc/victnot.htm|
|North Carolina Department of Corrections Victim Advocacy Services||http://www.doc.state.nc.us/DAPP/victim.htm|
|Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections||http://www.drc.ohio.gov/|
|Washington State Department of Corrections Division of Community Corrections (victim/witness notification program)||http://www.wa.gov/doc/|
|Wisconsin Sex Offender Registry||http://badger.state.wi.us/agencies/doc/html/sexoffender.html|
STATE COALITIONS AND RELATED RESOURCES
|Iowa: Iowa Organization for Victim Assistance (IOVA)||http://www.netins.net/showcase/i_weaver/iova/|
|Michigan: Victim's Rights (State Sen. Wm. Van Regenmorter)||http://www.gop.senate.state.mi.us/cvr/|
|New York: Victim Services Agency||http://www.victimservices.org|
|North Carolina: Citizens Against Violent Crime (CAVE)||http://www.webserve.net/iandi/org/cave|
|South Carolina: South Carolina Victim Assistance||http://www.netside.com/~ae4fa/|
|Texas: Texans for Equal Justice||http://www.flex.net/~judge/|
|Texas: Texas Association Against Sexual Assault||http://www.tsgweb.com/tdcaa/links.htm|
|Washington State: Wash. Coalition of Crime Victim Advocates||http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/|
OTHER VICTIM RESOURCES
|Action Without Borders - Nonprofit Directory||http://www.idealist.org|
|APA - American Psychological Association||http://www.apa.org/|
|Cecil Greek's Criminal Justice Page||http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/killers.html|
|Communities Against Violence Network||http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/law.html|
|Dignity for Victims Everywhere (DOVE)||http://www.eskimo.com/~yaqui|
|International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies||http://www.istss.com/|
|Jewish Domestic Abuse||http://users.aol.com/Agunah|
|Jewish Women International Domestic Violence Page||http://www.jewishwomen.org/AWAKEN.htm|
|Justice for All||http://www.jfa.net/|
|Microsoft Justice Homepage||http://www.microsoft.com/industry/justice/|
|MSU Victims and Media Project||http://www.journalism.msu.edu/victmed/|
|National Crime Victim's Research and Treatment Center||http://www.musc.edu/cvc/|
|Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN)||http://www.soconline.org/resources/victimassistance/index.html|
|Rape Recovery Help and Information||http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/2402/|
|Rule of Law Foundation||http://18.104.22.168/|
|Search Yahoo for Victims' Rights||http://www.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Crime/Victims__Rights/|
|Security on Campus, Inc.||http://www.soconline.org/|
|Sexual Assault Information Page||http://www.cs.utk.edu/~bartley/saInfoPage.html|
|The Stalking Victim's Sanctuary||http://www.ccon.com/stalkvictim|
|The Victim Assistance Page||http://www.orem.org/html/odps/vac/default.htm|
|Subscribe to the Victim Assistance Mailing||http://www.orem.org/html/odps/vac/default.htm|
|The VINE Company||http://www.vineco.com|
|Violence Policy Center||http://www.vpc.org|
|State Law and Legislative Information||http://www.washlaw.edu/|
|U.S. Supreme Court Decisions||http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/|
|Am. Journalism Review Newslink||http://www.newslink.org/|
(Special thanks is extended to Steve Derene, Program Manger for the Office of Crime Victim Services at the Wisconsin Department of Justice, and Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims, sponsored by the National Center for Victims of Crime with support from the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, for providing much of the Web site information included in this section.)
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