Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


Obtain Documents

To obtain resources from the NCJRS Virtual Library, follow the instructions provided below. As a policy, if an online version of a document (PDF, HTML, etc.) is available and presented in the Abstracts Database, the NCJRS Virtual Library will not provide that resource through the Interlibrary Loan Program or Photocopy/PDF Service except in situations where the patron does not have online access.


Many documents — and most documents published by NCJRS' Federal Sponsors since 1995 — are available in full-text format from the NCJRS website, Abstracts Database, or other related websites. Links to these online documents are included in the full abstract record and appear on the search results page, as shown below. Please note: In addition to full-text document links, links to publisher websites or other relevant resources may be provided.


In addition to being available online, original copies of many recent documents published by NCJRS' Federal Sponsors can be ordered. An "Order" image appears next to the NCJ Number for items that are available for online ordering. "Order Photocopy" appears next to the NCJ Number for results that are not available in our inventory, but can be ordered through NCJRS' Photocopy/PDF Service. Click on "Order" or "Order Photocopy" to add the item to your Shopping Cart.


Black-and-white photocopies or PDFs of select NCJRS Abstracts Database materials are available for a fee. Because of copyright restrictions, only one photocopy or PDF of a document can be provided per request. Photocopies and PDFs of copyright-protected materials are not normally available from NCJRS. However, special exceptions are made for requests that comply with Fair Use criteria (17 USC 107). See below for information on NCJRS' Standard and Fair Use photocopy/PDF requests. For more information on copyright, visit the NCJRS Virtual Library's Copyright Restrictions page.

Standard Requests

An "Order Photocopy" icon will appear next to the NCJ Number for documents that can be ordered online through NCJRS' standard photocopy/PDF service.

Photocopy/PDF fees are calculated based on the number of pages appearing in the original document (page count) and your location (domestic or outside the U.S.). Page counts may include blank pages as they appear in the original document. The chart below details photocopy/PDF service fees. Customers will not be billed until the availability of the requested document is confirmed.

Fair Use Requests

The Fair Use clause (17 USC 107) allows for reproduction of particular works for purposes including criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Four factors are considered when determining whether or not a particular request complies with the Fair Use clause:

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether it is commercial in nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work.
  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

Fair Use requests received by NCJRS are evaluated against these four factors and either approved or rejected. To place a Fair Use request simply email, mail, or fax your request to the NCJRS Virtual Library clearly citing the document and stating the purpose of the request (i.e. research, scholarship, teaching, etc.). NCJRS Virtual Library staff will respond to your request promptly and advise you on how to proceed..

Under no circumstances does receiving a photocopy or PDF from NCJRS waive copyright. Copyright protects the particular way an author has expressed themselves and does not extend to ideas, systems, or factual information conveyed in the work. All subsequent use of the materials must be approved by the copyright holder, normally the author or publisher of a document, and cannot be authorized by NCJRS. Title 17, Section 108 absolves library institutions of all subsequent violations and places the responsibility of obtaining copyright permission for future use on the patron who received the Fair Use copy. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.


Interlibrary Loans

All of the publications in the Abstracts Database are available through interlibrary loan to patrons in the United States and Canada. Interlibrary loans within the United States cost $15 per item. Loans to Canada cost $16.50 (U.S. funds) per item. Payment via credit card is required before the loan can be processed. While institutions can use a purchase order when placing their order, all purchase order invoices must be paid for using a credit card. Loans to personnel from U.S. Federal, State, and local government agencies — including law enforcement and corrections personnel — are free of charge.

To initiate an interlibrary loan, contact a librarian at your local library for assistance. Interlibrary loan requests can be submitted to the NCJRS Virtual Library by mail, fax, or email:

NCJRS Virtual Library
P.O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
301-240-5830 (fax)
Email: library@ncjrs.gov


Local Libraries

Many of the publications housed in the Abstracts Database collection are available at local libraries and NCJRS provides a function for you to search these collections through the "Find in a Library" service. At times, it might be faster, cheaper, and/or more convenient to access the documents you find on NCJRS.gov at a library in your area.

The "Find in a Library" service icon find in a library is presented throughout the NCJRS website. The icon is displayed in search results of the Abstracts Database, Weekly Accession List, and International Monthly Accession List, as well as on individual Abstract pages, based on the document’s format. Additionally, the icon is displayed for select documents on the Topical Pages, in the OJP Publications, and in Site Search results

By clicking on find in a library, you can access OCLC WorldCat® to check if the document you are interested in is available in your local library. When you click on find in a library, NCJRS will send a document or journal title search to WorldCat, a global consortium of over 10,000 libraries. After clicking on find in a library, a pop-up page, providing you with details of what is being searched, will display for your confirmation before directing you to the new Web page on WorldCat's website.

left arrow
right arrow